Breast breast cancer — what it is, symptoms and signs

According to a recent study this pathology in different forms once in your life bothered about 70-80% of ladies.

The structure of the mammary glands

 

What is a breast, why is she so often appears in women? To understand this, it is necessary to consider the structure of the mammary glands. They are primarily composed of glandular tissue. There is a large number of ducts, which are provided with structures for the production of milk during lactation. The data of the glandular tissue in each breast is divided into lobes. They are able to produce milk, which also contributes to the opening of the ducts of the nipple.

Between the lobes in the breast is dense connective tissue. The chest is supported in the desired position, because it forms a dense capsule. Also present in the breast adipose tissue, which gives them a rounded shape. In healthy women, the ratio of all the above fabrics are strictly defined. It provides normal work of mammary glands during lactation.

The mechanism of the disease

A feature of the female body is that it is prone to changes in hormone levels that occur every month. Progesterone and estrogen, the concentration of which changes significantly during the menstrual cycle not only affect the ovaries and uterus, but also on the mammary glands.

In the first phase before ovulation to the breast observe the processes of proliferation. It involves the active proliferation of cells. In the second half of the cycle is dominated by progesterone. It neutralizes the effect of estrogen, which leads to inhibition of the process of cell division.

Also, progesterone ensures a healthy pregnancy. It causes breast enlargement in volume. Thus, a woman’s body prepares for the onset of lactation. Swelling of the Breasts marginally, but significantly the majority of women. They describe it as a voltage and increased sensitivity of the mammary glands.

If pregnancy does not occur, the concentration of progesterone decreases and becomes predominant estrogen. Such changes lead to the return of the lacteal glands to previous levels. If conception has occurred, begins to produce prolactin. This hormone, which leads to a change in the structure of the chest and starts the process of lactation.

With the development of mastitis the mammary glands, the symptoms begin to manifest when the imbalance between the major female hormones. If the estrogen level exceeds the norm, and progesterone, by contrast, is produced in insufficient quantities, then there is the excessive reproduction of cells in the breast. Such negative processes lead to mastitis. Also, this disease develops when excessive production of prolactin by the pituitary gland.

In mastitis the causes of disease is considered to be a condition in which a high concentration of this hormone was observed, regardless of pregnancy or the onset of lactation.

Common causes of mastitis

Mastitis – what it is, what negative factors lead to its development? The main causes that provoke the emergence of this disease, I think:

  • development of related gynaecological diseases, which lead to the imbalance of hormones in the female body. Include such tumor pathology, uterine fibroids, ovarian inflammation, endometriosis, polycystic and others;
  • diseases of the adrenal glands;
  • the presence of thyroid abnormalities that lead to excessive or insufficient development of its hormones (hypothyroidism, goiter);
  • chronic liver disease and biliary tract – hepatitis, cholecystitis;
  • taking certain medications that increase the level of prolactin in a woman’s body. This can occur during the treatment of gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, hypertension, etc.;
  • benign or malignant tumors in the hypothalamic-pituitary area, which contributes to increased production of prolactin and other hormones;
  • obesity. Subcutaneous fat is part of the endocrine system. It is a partial synthesis of estrogen, which leads to higher levels;
  • injury of the breast. In consequence of inflammation develops, which leads to rapid cell division at the point of impact. The resulting seal can be reborn in the breast.
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Risk factors

The causes of mastitis are varied. Risk factors that can trigger this disease include:

  • genetic predisposition. It is established that the risk of developing breast more women who have this problem was observed in the mother or grandmother. This involves the transmission from generation to generation of the mutated genes;
  • a stressful situation, stay a long time in the doldrums, frequent change of mood. This leads to insufficient production of dopamine (the pleasure hormone), which inhibits excessive synthesis of prolactin;
  • abortion at different stages. During the development of the fetus in a woman’s body hormonal changes that affect the state of the mammary glands. If the pregnancy suddenly stop, the opposite processes in the glandular tissue of the breast. At this time, a woman’s body does not have time to adapt to such changes and the possible emergence of mastitis;
  • the rejection of breast-feeding, abrupt cessation of lactation. To provide the child with sufficient amount of milk in the mammary glands changes, which provides a high level of prolactin and estrogen. If lactation was discontinued in the wrong time, the reverse development of the glandular tissue is wrong, and provokes the development of disease;

  • the absence of childbirth and pregnancy in women older than 30 years. Nature has what it needs to happen much earlier. In the absence of pregnancy, hormonal background of woman is changed, which leads to mastitis;
  • hard diet. If food does not arrive all the vitamins, minerals and other nutrients, the body begins to function incorrectly, which leads to failures of different nature;
  • the lack of regular sexual life. This provokes congestion in the pelvis that lead to malfunction of the reproductive organs of women;
  • bad habits – alcohol, Smoking.

Diffuse mastopathy

This form of the disease is one of the most common. It is characterized by negative changes in the tissues throughout the breast volume. Diffuse mastopathy often precedes the development of nodular forms of the disease, which is considered more severe pathology. The symptoms and treatment of this problem are determined after diagnosis appearance.

There are several varieties of diffuse mastopathy:

  • Adenos. In this case, mainly grow breast slices. This is the most common form of diffuse mastopathy, which most often occurs in young women or in the first months of pregnancy.
  • Fibroadenomatosis. Characterized by the appearance of zones where see the growth of connective tissue.
  • Breast with the appearance of a cystic component. In this case, the diffuse form of the disease accompanied by the formation in the mammary gland of small cavities which are filled with fluid. The danger of this disease is the fact that the cysts could be delayed in calcium that in the future, causes the development of malignant tumors.
  • Fibrocystic. Combines the manifestation of two types of diffuse mastopathy.

Symptoms of diffuse mastopathy

With the development of diffuse mastopathy symptoms are manifested as follows:

  • pain, feeling of fullness in the Breasts. First of all, such symptoms of mastitis in women occur just before the next menstruation. Over time, these symptoms are permanent. Pain and swelling of the breast may slightly decrease during menstruation;
  • the appearance of discharge from the nipple that is usually transparent. Sometimes they are painted in greenish-brownish tint. Highlighting can appear on their own or with pressure on the nipples;
  • the appearance of small seals, which are evenly placed across the breast.

Peculiarities of nodal mastopathy

Typical manifestations of nodal mastopathy consider the presence of breast cysts or nodes. Usually they have clear boundaries and is not connected with surrounding tissues. These negative processes may occur in one breast and two. Nodular mastitis is most often diagnosed in women aged 35-45 years. It is manifested by the following symptoms:

  • before the onset of menstruation the breast increases in size, swells, becomes painful, and extremely sensitive;
  • sometimes the pain may radiate to the shoulder or scapula;
  • the cyst or node can be felt, but not in the supine position;
  • lymph nodes remain unchanged;
  • from the nipples appear discharge – clear, yellow, bloody.
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Fibrous breast

When fibrous mastopathy symptoms of the disease develop due to replacement of glandular tissue connective, which leads to compression of the ducts. Most common in young women, age not exceeding 30 years. The main symptoms of this disease think:

  • appearance aching dull pain in the breast, which increases before menstruation or when touched;
  • the breast becomes swollen, increased in size;
  • the appearance of discharge from the nipple;
  • if breast palpation detected dense nodes, the size of which in some cases reaches 7 cm. They are not connected with surrounding tissues.

Cystic breast

This form of the disease is accompanied by formation in the breast cavities with thick shells that are filled with fluid. Signs of mastitis breast cystic type believe:

  • the emergence of a strong aching or dull pain that is primarily localized to the location of the cysts. All the discomfort become more pronounced even with a light touch;
  • the appearance of discharge from the nipple;
  • breast enlargement in size. This phenomenon can only be observed on one breast where the cyst;
  • swollen lymph nodes. They become painful;
  • when probing detected formation of rounded which have clear boundary and elastic wall.

Fibrocystic mastopathy

This form of mastitis is characterized by the formation in the breast, dense lesions, which tend eventually to degenerate into a cyst. This problem often bothers women older than 30 years.

For fibrocystic breast characteristic symptoms of the two forms of the disease. During palpation of the breast can be detected as elastic and soft nodes, dense cysts.

The prognosis of patients women

What is the danger of breast for women? If the disease is detected promptly and treated properly, complete recovery occurs in 99% of cases. This process takes an average of 3-6 months. At the same time, we must pay due attention to the treatment of opportunistic diseases. This will help to prevent the recurrence of mastitis after some time.

The most dangerous complication of this disease is considered cancer. Most of the risk of development of oncological pathologies observed in fibrocystic breast. If there is a diffuse form of the disease cancer almost never develops.

Diagnosis of mastitis

Diagnosis of mastitis is carried out in such ways:

  • palpation of the chest. This method of study, you can apply at home to detect breast disease in its earliest stages. Also the doctor uses palpation. It detects the presence of seals in the chest, the character, quantity, presence of pain. Based on this we can assume about the nature of the development of mastitis;
  • mammography. This study is the fact that doing the x-ray of the breast. Using this method it is possible to identify the small seals that are not detected during palpation;
  • ultrasound examination of the breast. Using this method it is possible to detect various changes in the mammary glands (nodes, cysts, etc.). Ultrasound is recommended in combination with mammography, allowing with high accuracy to identify all of the pathology;
  • puncture. Applies if you have breast cancer nodes. With the help of puncture, it is possible to determine the structure of education and its properties. The puncture is performed with a syringe with a long needle which is inserted into the host directly through the skin.
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To determine the tactics of treatment of mastitis in women shows the additional tests that allow you to more accurately establish causes of disease. In particular, is determined by the level of sex hormones, prolactin, thyroid. In some cases, it is recommended to take an ultrasound of the pelvic organs, computed tomography to detect tumors in the pituitary gland.

The use of hormonal therapy in mastitis

How to treat mastopathy of the breast to get rid of the problem permanently? In this case, the most effective hormone therapy. Such treatment allows to get rid of the main reason which leads to mastitis. Drugs from this group normalize hormonal balance and positively affect the state of the mammary glands.

Mastitis treatment can occur by:

  • progestogen. These drugs are prescribed in the second phase of the cycle;
  • inhibitors of prolactin secretion. Prescribed for the normalization of the quantity of this hormone;
  • estrogen-progestin contraceptives. Most often prescribed to women of reproductive age.

Use non-hormonal preparations in mastitis

How to treat breast disease in women to get the best result. In conjunction with hormonal therapy, there are other products that do not contain hormones. They are used independently in the presence of mild forms of mastitis or as a prevention.

In these cases, mainly to treat such non-hormonal means:

  • vitamin. Assigned to all patients without exception. During treatment it is necessary to compensate for the deficiency of vitamins such as A, C, E, b;
  • iodine preparations. Appoint in the absence of contraindications. They help to improve the functioning of the thyroid gland;
  • sedatives. Assign with problems of a psychological nature, which could lead to mastitis;
  • nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Shown to relieve pain;
  • homeopathy and herbal medicine. Drugs from this group contribute to the normalization of hormonal background, which in many cases allows to get rid of mastitis;
  • the enzyme preparations. Eliminate the swelling, get rid of the inflammation. They also have an immunostimulating action.

Surgical intervention in mastitis

Treatment of mastitis in some cases surgically. The operation can be carried out by the method of a sectoral resection, which involves removing the tumor along with a small part of healthy tissue. When using enucleation produced exclusively husking tumors or cysts. Surgical intervention is shown in the following cases:

  • with the rapid growth of education in the chest;
  • the suspicion of breast cancer, as evidenced by a biopsy;
  • if the formation in the breast is large (1.5-2 m).

Prevention of mastitis

If breast is combined with yeast infection or any other disease, you need to carefully treat all problems. Only in this case the risk of recurrence is minimal. Also for the prevention of mastitis should:

  • not to neglect breastfeeding;
  • lead an active lifestyle;
  • rational feeding;
  • conduct regular sex life;
  • to avoid stress, emotional and physical stress;
  • regularly engage in self-examination;
  • to visit the gynecologist and mammologist prophylactically or when there is any problems;
  • to choose the right bra;
  • to avoid injury to the mammary glands.

Subject to compliance with all the rules, you can prevent the development of mastitis, which without proper treatment can lead to disastrous consequences.

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