Postoperative hypothyroidism the thyroid gland: treatment
Indications for surgery
Indications for surgical intervention can provide:
- Papillary or anaplastic carcinoma;
- Toxic adenoma;
- Diffuse toxic goiter;
- Follicular tumor.
Assign surgical intervention only in the case where medical therapy is contraindicated because of comorbidities or had a positive therapeutic effect.
After removal of the gland there is an acute lack of thyroid hormones. This is called hypothyroidism after surgery. Traditionally, the patient is prescribed hormone replacement therapy, which need to be followed for life.
The symptoms of hypothyroidism
Postoperative hypothyroidism is manifested in the complex of symptoms that can be disguised as the clinical picture of other diseases, because without laboratory diagnosis an accurate diagnosis can be difficult.
The main symptoms of postoperative hypothyroidism are:
- The reduced temperature as a result of violations of the mechanism of thermoregulation;
- Weight gain due to the violation of metabolic processes;
- Swelling of the body caused by destabilization of water-salt balance;
- Changing the contours of the face due to swelling;
- Difficulty breathing, especially during nighttime sleep;
- Hoarseness due to swelling of the vocal cords;
- Irritability, depression, caused by the disorder of neuroregulation;
- Arrhythmias in the result of functional changes of the myocardium and the osmotic pressure in the tissues;
- Enlargement of the liver and spleen as a result of bile stasis, intoxication and reduction of enzymatic activity;
- Poor appetite, flatulence;
- Nausea, constipation, vomiting;
- Anemia, poor blood clotting, low erythrocyte;
- Decreased libido, disorders of the menstrual cycle, amenorrhea.
For the diagnosis of hypothyroidism should have laboratory diagnostics for the content of thyroxine, triiodothyronine and thyroid stimulating hormone in the blood. Can also be assigned to the magnetic resonance imaging of the brain to assess the functional state of the pituitary and hypothalamus.
In medicine, postoperative hypothyroidism is considered to be a syndrome, not a specific disease, because you cannot cure it with no thyroid, but possible to overcome conditions associated with hypothyroidism.
Patients should immediately accept the fact that when the diagnosis of hypothyroidism make hormones vital throughout life after the surgery.
Usually, postoperative hypothyroidism is prescribed L-Thyroxine significantly improves the quality of life of the patient. The medication replaces the thyroxine, previously independently produced by the thyroid gland, and repeats its chemical structure.
The benefits of hormone therapy
Some patients are wary of taking hormones, trusting to rumors about excessive weight gain. In fact, taking thyroxin allows you to restore metabolic processes and to normalize functions of the body, is restored and the weight gained during hypothyroidism.
Advantages of reception of the thyroxine release:
- Rapid normalization of metabolic processes.
- The drug is taken only once a day or week at the dosage indicated by the endocrinologist.
- Changing the dosage of the drug occurs only in special cases. For example, during pregnancy, weight gain or, on the contrary, weight loss when combined with other drugs.
- Available cost of the drug, which completely pays for a qualitative change in the life of the patient.
- The life of the patient will not differ from the life of a healthy person not taking hormones.
- The drug acts quickly and has a prolonged action, maintaining the effect in a week, even if the patient forgot to take another tablet.
Therefore, hormonal therapy is considered one of the main directions in the rehabilitation and improvement of the patient’s life after surgery on the thyroid gland.
Effects of treatment with radioactive iodine
For the treatment of hyperthyroidism radioiodine therapy is often assigned. The cause of the disease is deficiency of thyroid cells after surgical removal of the carcinoma.
Sometimes the pathology associated with the individual reaction of the body which were not taken into account in the selection of drugs by the attending physician. After treatment with radioactive iodine, hypothyroidism may develop in the case when you were misdiagnosed. For example, symptoms of neurosis and euthyroid goitre often resembles the symptoms of hyperthyroidism.
Postoperative hypothyroidism in the clinical picture may resemble severe stage of myxedema. Pathology after treatment with radioactive iodine is also notable that the thyroid gland does not change its dimensions and is not detectable.
The clinical picture of the pathology associated with treatment with radioactive iodine:
- Circulatory disorders;
- Functional changes in the myocardium;
- The exophthalmos.
This condition can considerably worsen the condition of the patient as quickly as possible given oral thyroxine. Taking the drug for six months, then undergo a re-diagnosis. Chronic decline in function of the thyroid gland requires re-treatment with thyroxine.
Surgical intervention is often prescribed for such diseases, which are not comparable even with a lifelong hormonal therapy. Therefore, constant intake of thyroxine can significantly improve the life of the patient if the drug is taken according to the scheme, designed by the attending physician. No negative effects occur should not, patients are not limited in any way in your life.
Hypothyroidism after surgery – not a dangerous diagnosis, but a syndrome that requires relief. To get rid of it and its unpleasant consequences by using thyroxine, and though life accepting scares many patients note that it does not hinder their lives.
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