ENT diseases of the nose and paranasal sinuses: diseases of the mucosa

What are the diseases of the nose?

Rhinitis at least once a year there is in every human being. This condition delivers significant discomfort, because he can accompany symptoms such as nasal congestion and discharge from the respiratory organ, the pain and burning in the nose, swelling of the mucosa and so on. When the nose ceases to function fully in the body there are various violations. This body man can breathe, and it is moisturizing, cleansing and warming incoming air.

So, the nose is a complicated and delicate system that often fails. The reasons for the violation of her work a lot. It could be a vitamin deficiency, weak immunity, and the ingestion of pathogenic microorganisms. That is why the treatment of colds different etiology differs significantly. Therefore, it is important to know what are the diseases of the nose and its sinuses.

Types of diseases of the nose and paranasal sinuses

Classification of rhinitis is extensive. According to the etiological factor there are four leading categories of diseases.

The first group is disease, which a person was born.

The most common congenital defect is curvature of the septum, located in the respiratory organ.

But there are more dangerous violations that prevent the nose to work properly, requiring surgical intervention.

For example, fistula and narrowing of the nasal passages to provoke a chronic disease of the nose.

The second group of diseases caused by injuries to the nose. Damage can be of different nature (open, offset, mixed, etc.). Injury of the organ is accompanied by severe swelling, which often leads to septal hematoma.

Attention! A runny nose is the most popular disease in the world. According to statistics, 90% of the inhabitants of the planet at least once a year complain of difficulty with nasal breathing.

The third category of nasal diseases communicable diseases are caused by fungi, bacteria and viruses. These types of develop colds more often.

The fourth group is rhinitis provoked by irritants (allergic). In this case, a runny nose can be caused by an allergen, medicine or chemicals.Diseases related to nose, on the nature of the flow is divided into chronic and acute. Yet they differ in localization and form.

Inflammation of the sinuses

Below let us consider the most frequent diseases of the nose.

Acute rhinitis

The nasal inflammation occurs when it penetrates the infection, and the immune system is weakened and can not fight it alone. In the beginning of the disease the mucous membrane of the nose can be changed – it is dry and there is flushing. Next it gets swollen and there is discharge. At the last stage of the progression of a cold nose is released purulent mucus.

In the absence of treatment, acute inflammation extends to the paranasal sinuses, Eustachian tube and nasolacrimal ducts. If the patient has a high immunity, the rhinitis will be easy and the unpleasant symptoms will pass through two or three days.

When the protective function of the body is weakened, the disease may last from 1 month or more. Treatment of acute rhinitis should be comprehensive. Its main objective is the elimination of the signs of the disease. To this end, the patient is prescribed an antiseptic sprays, corticosteroids as ointments and nasal lavage with saline.

Chronic rhinitis

Develops as a complication of acute rhinitis due to incorrect treatment or lack thereof. Other etiological factors – poor circulation, stagnation of purulent exudate in the sinuses and irritants. The characteristic features of the disease:

  • the deterioration of the sense of smell;
  • snoring;
  • nasal congestion;
  • headache;
  • snot.

Basically, the aggravation of rhinitis happens in the fall and winter, and by spring the patient’s condition is normalized. For chronic rhinitis leads to occlusion in children, skull deformation, and change in the development of the chest.

Attention! Prolonged treatment of rhinitis impairs hearing and contributes to the appearance pharyngitis, tonsillitis, and boils.

Chronic disease of the nasal mucosa is treated through the elimination of factors causing the disease, physical impacts, climate-treatment and medication. Apply cauterizing and astringents (silver nitrate, Protargol) and drops, narrowing the vessels. If combination therapy does not bring due results – galvanocaustic.


The fetid rhinitis occurs due to atrophy of mucosa, bone and cartilage of the nose. The clinical picture of the disease is a sticky discharge with putrid odor, crusting in the nose and not the perception of odors. The causes of oseny not installed. But it is believed that the disease develops in congenital abnormalities following an inflammatory disease and infection of the nasal cavity.

Attention! In 80% of cases the emergence of fetid rhinitis contributes to Klebsiella.

Therapy Oseni can be medicinal and surgical.

With medical treatment the patient is shown the antibiotics, nasal rinses.

After removal of the crusts, make endonasally installation, and then lay in the nasal passages ointment.

Also fetid rhinitis are effectively treated with physiotherapy methods.

In the surgical treatment of carried out operations aimed at:

  • narrowing of the nasal passages;
  • stimulation of the trophic to the mucosa;
  • hydration of mucous layers;

Allergic rhinitis

This type of rhinitis is seasonal, occurring during the flowering of plants year-round, caused by household allergens. According to duration of allergic rhinitis is divided into intermittent (up to 4 days) and persistent (occurs at least 4 times a year).

When stimuli fall into the nasal cavity occurs, rhinorrhea, sneezing, and difficulty breathing nose. The cure lies in the behavior of specific immunotherapy. Of medicines are appointed by antihistamines and corticosteroids.



Occurs when inflammation of the maxillary sinus. The acute form develops on the background of infectious diseases, as a complication of rhinitis and inflammatory diseases of the teeth.

The chronic form appears, if the acute stage be joined by negative factors (deviated septum, thickening of the mucosa, narrowing of the openings of the sinuses).

Symptoms of acute sinusitis:

  • temperature;
  • pain that radiates to the forehead, the teeth, the root of the nose;
  • chills;
  • watery eyes;
  • pus;
  • nasal congestion.

Chronic sinusitis is accompanied by pain in the sinuses and head discomfort, loss of smell and nasal congestion. Inflammation treated with conservative physiotherapy methods or by using a puncture, drainage and treatment of the nasal cavity. The main goal of therapy – the elimination of edema and inflammation, improvement of drainage of pus.


Inflammation of the paranasal frontal sinuses arise for reasons similar to sinusitis. The symptoms and treatment of diseases of the nose depends on its shape. In acute inflammatory process, edema, discoloration of the skin, increase of body temperature. Sometimes develops cellulitis, purulent fistulas, abscess. Chronic sinusitis is accompanied by swelling of the mucous membrane in the nose or move the polyps are formed. In the case of necrosis of the posterior wall develops meningitis and abscess.

Acute frontal sinusitis treated by conservative methods: lubrication and burying the mucosa of the nasal passage with a solution of Naphazoline and Cocaine with adrenaline. Therapy also involves?

  • physiotherapeutic effect;
  • reception of Analginum and parameterisations acid;
  • the holding of the inhalation or/m introduction of antibiotics.

Attention! Chronic sinusitis is treated by conventional methods, but in the absence of the effectiveness of a surgical intervention.


Developing inflammatory process of the mucous cells of the nose ethmoid labyrinth. Causes infection goes untreated sinusitis or sinusitis, sepsis in newborns.

The disease is characterized by such symptoms as difficulty breathing, discomfort and feeling of fullness in the nose, anosmia, the allocation of the mucous secret. Therapy involves the use of systemic antibiotics, antipyretics, painkillers and drugs that narrow blood vessels.


Occurs when inflamed mucous layers of the sphenoid sinus. Aggravating factors are:

  • dysfunction fistula of the sphenoid sinus;
  • defects of the sinus (a narrow);
  • penetration into the bosom of foreign particles;
  • chronic inflammatory diseases of the respiratory system (upper).

The leading symptom of sphenoiditis – headache in different locations. Sometimes develop ophthalmic problems (diplopia, reduced visual function). Still possible and mucous purulent exudate, foul-smelling odour from the mouth.

Therapy is the use of vasoconstrictor, antibacterial and thinning drugs. Also, the doctor makes the procedure of anemisation the nasal cavity, which improves the outflow of secretions. The chronic form of the disease often requires surgical intervention.

Diseases of the outer part of the nose

This group of diseases include lesions on the external surface of the nose, and the nearby areas. Such pathologies include:

  1. Erysipelas – an infectious disease accompanied by redness and swelling of the skin of the vestibule of the nose.
  2. Infection of the surface of the nose after injury.
  3. Boils.
  4. Infection in the nose manifests itself by the formation of purulent seal, the size of a pea. Simultaneous inflammation of the glands and hair follicles, this phenomenon is called carbuncle.
  5. Rhinophyma – inflammation, characterized by the overgrowth of layers of skin on the tip and wings of the nose. Externally, education is similar to the hillocks that can droop and stretch.


As you can see, ENT diseases of the nose and paranasal sinuses are numerous. Therefore, people who have not had an accurate diagnosis of rhinitis, often wrongly choose the method of treatment.

Meanwhile, the disease progresses rapidly, passing into a chronic form. And in severe cases may develop complications that are life-threatening. Therefore, self in most cases it would be inefficient and perhaps it will only aggravate the disease or lead to more serious consequences.

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