Epistaxis in children: causes frequent bleeding and treatment
Causes of frequent nose bleeds in children and how to treat it?
Epistaxis causes panic and fear, especially if such a sign appeared in children. Sometimes the blood from the sinuses occurs as a result of regular scratch of the nose with excessive picking. But sometimes this symptom alerts the patient about the hazardous process within the organ of respiration. Whatever happened to the baby, it is important to determine the cause and start necessary lechenie. So in this situation behave correctly, you must know the principles of treatment of epistaxis in children.
Remember that the blood from the cavity of the nose may be a harbinger of dangerous processes, so if it flows more than a few minutes, call an Ambulance. If the cause of the blood loss is minor, provide first aid for nosebleed in children independently.
Causes blood loss from the nasal cavity
Of course, unexpected bleeding from the sinuses in a child can lead the parent into shock. In such a situation it is important not to panic, and without emotion to establish the reasons for the formation of such a process. Often the phenomena of this kind occur because of active play or careless cleansing of the nose. But not always harmless bleeding. In some situations, cause severe bleeding from the nose could be a benign or malignant neoplasm.
Due to the fact that the causes of this ailment are many, select the main factors.
Mucosa of the nasal cavity covered by a network of small blood vessels. Most of them are located in the lower part of the nasal passage.
In children of young age these formations differ from adults. They are more fragile, so often injured.
Even a small trauma, which often happens during the game, can lead to onset of heavy bleeding.
Most often, blood loss from the nose appears in children from two years old, as that age marked the peak of activity. Kids because of the lack of experience often cause small injuries during active games. In this case, should not be afraid, but if the bleeding started without any apparent reason, is necessary to make the diagnosis.
There is a perception that infants bleeding missing completely. Unfortunately, in infants, this symptom also occurs. In virtue of the immature vessels and the anatomical structure of the nasal cavity, even the slightest injury can lead to a large release of blood. In this case, need specialized support to the medical staff.
In addition, spotting can be a sign of a serious inflammatory process. To establish the causes of the pathology it is important to pass a comprehensive examination from a qualified physician. Often, when the diagnosis in younger patients reveal reduced blood clotting, jaundice, syphilis and other particularly dangerous diseases.
The main factors
In addition, it is possible to identify the main causes are often the precipitating factor bleeding:
- injury of the nose, serious damage to the integrity of blood vessels;
- the presence of polyps in the nasal cavity;
- benign or malignant tumors, cysts;
- in infancy, the cause of bleeding may be injected into the cavity of the nose parts from a toy or other foreign object;
- low blood clotting;
- chronic bleeding;
- the lack of platelets;
- long-term treatment with antibiotics;
- incorrect doses of some medications or a side effect from medication;
- high blood pressure;
- untreated, the flu or the common cold;
- the fragility of blood vessels;
- frequent exercise fatigue;
- chemical burns;
- damage to the skin due to exposure to high temperatures;
- very dry air in the living room;
- prolonged exposure to the sun.
Other precipitating factors may include low blood clotting, weak immune system.
More serious cases include accidents or fights. In addition, the blood can go due to mechanical damage of the nasal cavity.
Sometimes even in normal Bismarckian disturbed the structure of the blood vessels that leads to blood loss.
Children often pick your nose or stick a pen or pencil and small parts. These games cause of injury to the mucosa. In violation of the integrity of the body, the blood in the nose appears as a protective factor.
Sometimes the cause of blood loss lies in the individual characteristics. When a deviated nasal septum this pathological process occurs often enough.
Not worth to exclude the presence of bacterial or viral diseases. Often, these illnesses in a negative way effect on the nasal cavity and cause symptomatic bleeding.
The cause of nosebleeds in children adolescence can be hormonal changes. At this time, the child narrowed arteries and increased blood pressure. In this period extremely dangerous any load.
In the case of high blood coagulability, medical care might be unnecessary. But if the cause of the bleeding lies in the presence of tumors, cysts, or severe trauma, it is important to take steps to first aid.
Identifying the causes of frequent nosebleeds in children, it is necessary to provide treatment.
In no case do not throw back the child’s head back. This method contrary to popular opinion, incorrect.
It is best to keep your head in a horizontal position or rotated to the side.
If the child is bleeding from the nose, do not put him on the bed. Instead, put the baby on a chair and watching his breathing.
In this position the blood does not get into the throat and cause coughing. It is best to open a window and provide oxygen.
To provide first aid to these methods is not enough. Must be applied to the damaged and inflamed area of the ice or another cold object wrapped in a napkin or towel. In addition, it is necessary to cause the outflow of blood from the brain. This can be achieved attaching to the feet warmer.
The first fifteen minutes the nasal passages should not be administered turundy. With abundant tamponing the blood may accumulate in the nasal cavity and flow up into the esophagus.
After fifteen minutes in the nasal passages enter the small and loose turundas soaked in hydrogen peroxide. In addition, the nose can enter any vasoconstrictor drug.
At this time you cannot vysmarkivatsya, and apply any food. It is best to limit physical activity, and use of any drinks.
After the bleeding stops is necessary to lubricate the nasal passages with tea tree oil or olive oil.
The help of doctors
If bleeding is severe, call an Ambulance. Usually in such cases, doctors perform the following procedures:
- Cauterization of the inflamed area.
- Reception of medicines.
- Blockages in major blood vessels.
In severe cases, it is necessary to produce a blood transfusion.
If the child has frequent bleeding, it is important to follow the basic preventive rules. It is important to observe the correct mode of the day, follow the activity of the baby and to prevent fatigue. In addition, it is especially important to eat right and limit load.