Fibroids ovarian: symptoms, causes and treatment
Tumors, developing from fibrous connective tissue, called fibroids (fibra in Latin means «fiber»). These tumors are benign in nature, rarely transform into malignant and can occur anywhere on the body. Fibroma of the ovary is formed from the connective tissue of the gonads. It accounts for about 10% of all diagnosed benign tumors of the female reproductive system.
Connective tissue tumor has a low sensitivity to the action of hormones, grows slowly and is itself a health hazard is not. It occurs mainly in older women, approaching or reach menopause, most often affects only one ovary. However, the neoplasm should not be taken lightly. Growing up, the ovarian fibroma can cause many complications.
Connective tissue tumor has a rounded shape, dense capsule, and expressed the stem, giving it mobility. The surface of the tumor is smooth or knotty, texture — dense-elastic, can be solid when the deposition of calcium salts, the swollen tissue is soft. The color on the cut — grayish.
The blood supply of a tumor is relatively undeveloped, the growth is inactive, but running fibroid can reach a diameter of 12 cm At its center with time there are degenerative processes, hemorrhage, can be formed necrotic foci, cysts.
There is a kind of diffuse fibroma of the sex glands (gonads). In this case, the capsule separating the tumor from the tissues of the body, may be absent. This form of pathology is more common.
If the size of the tumors is small, it does not interfere with normal operation of the ovaries, does not violate the menstrual cycle does not affect the pregnancy. Discover her at this time can only be accidental. Increasing fibroma of the ovary begins to push on nearby organs. If nothing is done, may develop complications of the disease.
Complications of fibroma of the ovary
- infection and abscess;
- necrosis of tumor tissue;
- torsion legs in which blood vessels are clamped;
- malignancy (degeneration into malignant tumor).
Malignancy fibroids is rare, however, it may develop on the background of dystrophic tissue changes.
Reasons for the formation of connective tissue tumors
Not established a specific cause that triggers the development of fibroids of the gonads. Perhaps the pathology is caused by a complex of factors. It occurs mainly in the background:
- hormonal imbalance in the woman’s body (metabolic disease, diabetes, menopause, abnormal pregnancy, oral contraceptives);
- weakened immunity due to various diseases;
- acute and chronic inflammatory processes in the reproductive and urinary systems (adnexitis, oophoritis, salpingitis, sexually transmitted diseases);
- infertility, menstrual disorders.
The causes of fibroids of the gonads, obviously, those that have uterine fibroids, as these conditions that often accompany each other.
It is noted, in addition, a genetic predisposition to tumors of the reproductive system. Perhaps the reason for the disease is a genetic disorder.
Symptoms of fibroids sex glands
Fibroma of the ovary of small size (up to 3 cm) in most cases has no clinical manifestations. Symptoms appears with the growth of the tumor.
- Ascites, or dropsy of the abdominal cavity, due to the release of transudate from the tumor. If esteticheskaya the liquid through the slit diaphragm enters the pleural cavity hydrothorax develops in the lungs. The combination of these symptoms is called the syndrome of Mags.
- Ascites is manifested by bloating, painful sensations.
- The General health of the patient worsens, shortness of breath, weakness, tachycardia, anemia.
- Large tumor compressing adjacent organs that affect their work (disorders stool, urination), manifests itself in a feeling of fullness in the abdomen.
- The menstrual cycle is usually not impaired, in some cases, there is little crashes, less delay menstruation for a few months.
- In malignant degeneration of the fibroid can develop polyserositis (severe inflammation of the inner membranes lining the body cavity), cachexia (wasting).
- Complications of uterine fibroids (torsion legs, bleeding) accompanied by a critical deterioration of women, peritonitis, General intoxication.
Ascites, hydrothorax and anemia (full triad of Meigs) in combination may indicate a malignant tumor of the ovaries.
Diagnosis of fibroids ovarian
Most often the tumor is small in size detected incidentally, during a routine visit a woman gynecologist. By bimanual examination in the gynecological chair, the doctor discovers a dense movable tumor on the side or back relative to the uterus, palpation of which does not cause the patient pain.
To clarify the nature of formation, is assigned to the hardware rendering of the ovaries and mandatory blood tests and a vaginal swab.
- Research on tumor markers confirm or rule out cancerous nature of the tumor.
- Microscopic and cultural examination of the smear can detect signs of infectious disease.
- Ultrasound examination with the DRC (the technology of visualization of blood flow) will give sufficient information about the shape and structure of the tumor, its vascularization (blood supply).
- Imaging (MRI and CT) if necessary, refines the results of the ultrasound.
- When ascites is puncture of the abdominal and pleural cavity samples of transudate and its subsequent studies.
In the diagnosis of a fibroma must be differentiated from functional ovarian cysts, cancer, myoma node of the uterus (in contrast to the fibroma is stationary).
Most information the doctor can give a diagnostic and treatment laparoscopy. In the course of this operation from the inside to inspect the ovary using a special camera introduced into the body cavity. If the diagnosis of fibroma of the ovary is confirmed, the surgeon can remove the tumor by manipulating instruments through small punctures in the abdominal wall.
The final diagnosis can be made only by results of the analysis of the extracted tumor.
Treatment of connective-tissue tumors of the gonads
Therapy fibroids ovarian conservative medical means is not performed, as the tumor does not respond to medication. Detection of tumors is a clear indication for its surgical removal.
The operation is carried out with the greatest possible preservation of healthy tissue of the ovary. This is particularly important for young women with reproductive function, which in future plan to become pregnant. Demarcated small tumor was removed together with its capsule, not disrupted ovary.
The older women who entered into menopause it is advisable complete removal of the ovaries. Also it is held in serious irreversible disorders. If the fibroids bilateral, at least part of the affected ovary can be saved.
There are no specific measures that would clearly prevent the development of fibroids the ovaries. In forces women to detect the problem and start treatment in time. It is recommended to annually visit a gynecologist for prevention and to undergo ultrasound examination of the reproductive system.