Esophageal cancer: causes, symptoms, treatment

Esophageal cancer — symptoms, diagnosis, treatment

Of all the complications of GERD, the most unfavourable oncological processes of the digestive system. The esophagus is the most exposed to this process, since the main blow falls on him. Esophageal cancer — the most common disease of this organ, and he appears more often due to careless attitude to their health.

Even in the modern world where a well-developed medicine to get rid of this disease very difficult, and five-year survival for end-stage disease is less than 5%. This is one of the oncological processes, often leading to death.

The causes of esophageal cancer

Each day the human body fights with the formation of unusual structures. Cancer cells appear every minute, but due to the harmonious defense mechanism is their destruction and disease do not develop. So, why does esophageal cancer? Reasons to call difficult, but there are predisposing factors.

  1. First to deliver systematic contact with corrosive for mucosa of the esophagus substances. Defective closure of the circular muscles of the esophagus and the excess hydrochloric acid of the stomach, which regularly goes up — that’s often the reason. All this can be observed in the development of GERD — gastroesophageal reflux disease. She is a predisposing factor, especially if left untreated.
  2. Improper diet with low content of vegetables, fruits and vitamins.
  3. The Barrett is one of the factors in the development of adenocarcinoma (cancer) of the esophagus.
  4. Chronic radiation effects on the body, excessive mechanical, thermal and chemical irritation of the mucosa — alcohol abuse, eating coarse food, hot and cold.

The first symptoms and signs of esophageal cancer

No specific clinical symptoms by which one can judge about the existence of this process. But the first symptoms of esophageal cancer include the following symptoms.

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  1. Рак пищевода: причины, симптомы, лечениеDysphagia — violation of act of swallowing. A man concerned about the pain and difficulty swallowing. First, it applies only to the use of hard (bread, meat, fresh fruit and vegetables), and then idcourse food.
  2. Also the first signs of esophageal cancer include pain in the chest and heartburn. In the beginning pain occur only when you swallow rough or spicy food, gradually, the body reacts to absolutely any product.
  3. Progressive weight loss. The weight loss is a sign of any cancer process. It is often one of the first manifestations of the disease prior to the appearance which the person may not even guess about the existence of the disease.
  4. Progressive pain in the chest radiating to the back tells about the growth of a tumor or the presence of metastases in adjacent organs (mediastinum).
  5. Constant hiccups evidence of involvement in the pathological process of the diaphragm.
  6. Hypersalivation — increased amounts of saliva is a sign of stenosis (narrowing) of the esophagus.
  7. Рак пищевода: причины, симптомы, лечениеA more rare symptom of esophageal cancer is hoarseness. It occurs in lesions of the laryngeal nerve.
  8. Over time, developing hypercalcemia (excess calcium in the body), and metastatic spread in all organs and bones have pain throughout the body.
  9. Lung damage in most cases occurs in the late stages of the disease and is characterized by recurrent pulmonary infections (frequent occurrence of bronchitis, pneumonia).
  10. Vomiting blood is rare, but is very hard. It arises the decay of the tumor — the blood is the color of coffee grounds; or if erosion of the blood vessels of the esophagus — then she’ll vomit a blood scarlet.

In addition, there are General symptoms: weakness, malaise.

How I live with esophageal cancer? The prognosis for life is poor. Five-year survival rate is only 3-5% and does not depend on the type of tumor.

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Poor prognosis is due to several reasons:

  • late clinical manifestations;
  • rapid progressive course with distant metastases.
  • Classification of esophageal cancer and its diagnosis

    According to the ICD-10 revision of the esophageal cancer refers to diseases of the 2nd section under the title — tumors, code C15 (malignant neoplasm of the esophagus). Additionally, there are units C15.0 — C15.9, which konkretisiert location of the tumor.

    In addition, cancer is divided into squamous and adenocarcinoma. The first is found in approximately 60-70% of cases.

    There is a classification of the disease in stages depending on the size of the diseased tissue and the presence of metastases.

    1. Рак пищевода: причины, симптомы, лечениеΙ stage is clearly limited to small sizes up to 3 cm tumor, which grows only the mucosa and submucosa of the esophagus without metastases. The cross on the saved.
    2. II stage — education from 3 to 5 cm grows all the layers, but not beyond the walls of the esophagus.
    3. ΙΙΙ stage is larger than five centimeters, extends beyond the wall on colorimetry fiber, the lumen of the body narrowed, multiple metastases in nearby lymph nodes.
    4. AI this stage of esophageal cancer with invasion into adjacent organs and metastases to distant lymph nodes.

    Additionally there is a classification of the tumor according to the TNM system which takes into account the following criteria:

  • the primary tumor;
  • depth of invasion;
  • the status of the lymph nodes;
  • the presence of metastases.
  • Diagnosis of esophageal cancer is based on the complaints and symptoms of the patient. A crucial role in diagnosis play endoscopic with biopsy and x-ray data. From these studies, it is possible to detect the formation, to establish its exact dimensions and the degree of narrowing of the esophagus, the presence of decay and bleeding of the tumor. Performed CT of the abdomen to determine the lesions of other organs.

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    Treatment of esophageal cancer

    Рак пищевода: причины, симптомы, лечениеIn the first stage of treatment of cancer of the esophagus is necessary to determine whether the person shown surgical intervention. The operation is not carried out at the age of 70 years and if there are multiple metastases.

    Carried out the removal of the esophagus with the formation of the artificial organ. When successfully executed operation on the first stages of the disease it is possible to achieve a full recovery.

    In addition, are used to Supplement other methods of treatment:

  • radiation therapy;
  • chemotherapy.
  • Treatment of esophageal cancer folk remedies ineffective, there are proven methods that will help completely get rid of the process.

    Esophageal cancer is one of those diseases that is easier to prevent than to cure. It is much easier to improve the quality of life and to instill the right culture of food to man than forever to remove the mass. Sometimes even time the operation is only marginally prolongs life. If there are prerequisites for the development of the disease is constant observation and careful attention to their health saves lives.