Hemorrhagic anemia: causes, symptoms, stages, diagnosis, treatment

Hemorrhagic anemia is a complication of GERD

What can cause heartburn, in addition to the sleepless nights and ill health? This symptom is often underestimated by people. In the hope that this is just a temporary discomfort, the person will not go to be examined by a doctor and begin treatment.

What complications are observed after diseases accompanied by heartburn? What is hemorrhagic anemia, because of what it arises? Why it happens with GERD?

Hemorrhagic anemia — a consequence of GERD

Who are not lucky enough to avoid this disease, knows what gastroesophageal reflux disease or GERD occurs because of weakness of the lower esophageal sphincter. The bottom round muscle over time for a number of reasons weakens and starts to pass food from the stomach back into the esophagus. In the stomach the acidic environment in the esophagus, opposite, alkaline. Therefore, in case of gastric content here people often feel heartburn. If symptoms of heartburn even in the initial stages to ignore — complications can not be avoided. These include:

  • Barrett’s esophagus;
  • stricture or narrowing of the esophagus;
  • ulcers of the esophagus and as a consequence — hemorrhagic anemia.
  • Hemorrhagic anemia is a decrease in the amount of hemoglobin of blood due to bleeding, which developed as a complication of GERD. Anaemia occurs after the appearance of ulcers in the mucosa of the esophagus or the initial part of the stomach.

    Causes of post-hemorrhagic anemia

    Постгеморрагическая анемия: причины, симптомы, стадии, диагностика, лечениеSuch complications of GERD as hemorrhagic anemia occurs in 2-7% of cases all complications of gastroesophageal reflux disease. In the first place there is not bleeding and ulcers in the mucosa of the esophagus. Delicate mucous membrane not used to acidic gastric contents with hydrochloric acid. Constant exposure leads to a gradual trophic disorders. Deteriorating nutrition and the blood supply of the superficial mucosa. If the person continues to ignore all the symptoms that accompany GERD, ulcers. Over time, if untreated they can reach the muscle layer, which affects the blood vessels. Acute and chronic hemorrhagic anemia is caused by blood loss from these «naked» blood vessels.

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    For some reason there is hemorrhagic anemia?

    1. Постгеморрагическая анемия: причины, симптомы, стадии, диагностика, лечениеIn severe or even fulminant course of GERD, when allocating a generous amount of hydrochloric acid, affecting the lining of the esophagus.
    2. In the absence of treatment.
    3. If the appearance of the first symptoms of GERD do not change the way of life continues is bad for the esophagus your food (spicy food, meals from fast food, drinking coffee and strong tea, alcoholic beverages, dyed carbonated fizzy drinks).

    Almost 15% of cases perforation (breakthrough) of the esophageal wall into the cavity of the mediastinum, thus all the contents of the esophagus through the formed hole can leak into the chest. In addition to food and gastric juice, there also flows blood from the affected vessels.

    Symptoms of posthemorrhagic anemia

    Постгеморрагическая анемия: причины, симптомы, стадии, диагностика, лечение

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    Acute hemorrhagic anemia is due to a pronounced massive bleeding, this is a sharp decrease in the number of erythrocytes and hemoglobin, but not immediately. As this is GERD and its complications? If an outbreak of sores affects small vessels — the bleeding is slight, pronounced changes immediately people will not feel. A large number of ulcerative lesions of the mucous membrane of the esophagus or when the painful process involved large vessels — bleeding is strong.

    Acute hemorrhagic anemia develops after the loss of a large amount of blood in a short period of time. In some cases, the person does not know about the presence of ulcers of the esophagus and the occurrence of such complications of GERD as bleeding.

    Manifestations of the disease depend on the amount of blood lost. About the presence of post-hemorrhagic anemia is indicated by the following symptoms.

    1. When a large hemorrhage will develop a picture of the collapse: sudden extreme weakness, bleeding, pallor, sensation of dryness in the mouth, possible vomiting, a person covered with cold sweat.
    2. Posthemorrhagic iron deficiency anemia is characterized by the appearance of palpitations, severe muscle weakness, dry skin and cracks on hands and feet, brittle nails. You can see swelling under the eyes, weakness, headaches, nausea, reduced appetite, a person complains of dysgeusia, when the enjoyment in the eating of chalk or clay.
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    In the case of large blood loss symptoms appear almost immediately. In chronic anemia all of the above symptoms simultaneously will not occur, and will develop depending on the amount of blood loss and the frequency of bleeding. The symptoms in this case will be regular, in the analysis of blood changes in the indices of the man marked constantly, until the discovery of the source of the bleeding.

    Stage and extent of post-hemorrhagic anemia

    Accurate diagnosis of disease will be done after proper examination. Helps in this common blood test. As hemorrhagic anemia is a decrease in the level of erythrocytes and hemoglobin in a specified volume of blood, in the study looking at these figures in the first place.

    Stage post-hemorrhagic anemia are the following.

    1. Постгеморрагическая анемия: причины, симптомы, стадии, диагностика, лечение

      pressure drop

      Reflex-vascular manifest immediately after blood loss, characterized by normal indicators of hemoglobin and erythrocytes in unit of blood volume, but it dramatically reduces the pressure, quickens the heartbeat and the breathing rate, the person turns pale.

    2. Hidromecanica stage post-hemorrhagic anemia develops after a few hours (3-5) after the first symptoms, there are a number of important biochemical changes in the human body, increases the blood volume due to plasma at this time in the analysis markedly decreased hemoglobin and red blood cells. This stage lasts at least three days.
    3. In bone marrow stage activated processes of recovery of the blood cells in the analysis are the young forms of red blood cells.

    The degree of chronic post-hemorrhagic anemia by hemoglobin.

    1. Mild the amount of hemoglobin in the blood varies from 120 to 90 g/L.
    2. The average degree is set in the hemoglobin 90-70 g/l.
    3. The level of hemoglobin less than 70 g/l is severe anaemia.

    Diagnosis of the disease

    Постгеморрагическая анемия: причины, симптомы, стадии, диагностика, лечениеThere are three main types diagnosis of anemia:

  • on clinical grounds;
  • laboratory diagnostics;
  • instrumental methods of research.
  • Each of them is important, because with their help it is possible to detect the disease, the source of the bleeding, set the stage.

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    Post-hemorrhagic anemia diagnosis is based on the following surveys.

    1. Determination of the amount of hemoglobin and erythrocytes in the blood test. In addition, depending on the stage of anemia in the analysis, one can see young blood cells and atypical.
    2. Man with suspected post-hemorrhagic anemia necessarily directed at EGD or functional study of the initial division of the digestive system, making it possible to detect ulcers and bleeding. But in rare cases, bleeding is not seen.
    3. Biochemical or blood test with obligatory determination of transferrin and ferritin, hemosiderin — important indicators of changes in blood composition.
    4. Not the last place in the diagnosis of post-hemorrhagic anemia is the examination of the person and his complaint.

    Treatment of post-hemorrhagic anemia

    Постгеморрагическая анемия: причины, симптомы, стадии, диагностика, лечениеIn acute post-hemorrhagic anemia or very low hemoglobin treatment should be performed only in a hospital. If necessary, carry out anti-shock activity, stop the bleeding, make blood transfusion in massive blood loss.

    Treatment of chronic post-hemorrhagic anemia consists of the assignment of long course:

  • iron supplements;
  • vitamins C and group B (in some complex drugs contained both iron and b vitamins);
  • assign a diet with the optimum content of iron in the products, preference is given to meat with vegetables (low-fat varieties of beef and pork, rabbit, pork and beef liver, veal, fish).
  • In conclusion, we repeat that hemorrhagic anemia develops due to blood loss. If you run GERD and completely ignore the symptoms of this disease this complication is not far off. To avoid it you can, if you control the flow of GERD and annually seen by a doctor.