Stricture (narrowing) of the esophagus: what is it, symptoms, treatment

Stricture (narrowing) of the esophagus

One of the primary functions of the digestive system is not processing food, and the promotion of food bolus. The esophagus is no exception. This hollow tube is provided with the muscular system, which helps to push food forward.

Some congenital anomalies and severe disease lead to violation of its work as change its structure. For example, the esophageal stricture is a severe and irreversible process which makes the lumen of the body sometimes narrowed to critical values.

Causes narrowing of the esophagus

Stricture or narrowing of the esophagus is the abnormal structure of this section of the digestive system, in which the lumen of the organ is greatly reduced in diameter compared with the physiological norm. Under normal conditions the lumen of the organ in the range of 2-3 cm, tensile can reach up to 4-5 cm is narrowing as a result of replacement of muscle tissue with connective tissue, scars are formed.

The most frequent causes of the disease include pathology.

  1. Chemical burns, after whom burns may develop stricture of the esophagus.
  2. Wounds.
  3. Surgery is the nearby organs, complicated by inflammation of the esophagus.
  4. Tumors of the surrounding tissues.
  5. GERD. Frequent esophageal reflux (abnormal reflux of gastric contents) and the abundance of hydrochloric acid in gastric juice leads to the development of peptic strictures of the esophagus. This is one of the complications of reflux disease that develops in the absence of treatment or when the aggressive course of the disease.

Almost always narrowing of the esophagus develops as a result of acute illness or inflammatory process in it. Emergency situations, which include burns and wounds, prevent, difficult, and, therefore, almost impossible to correct. In the case of GERD — until such complications, as esophageal stricture, should take a long time. Immediately, the mucous membrane of the body, formed by erosion, then ulcer defects. With timely start of therapy ulcers gradually heal and begin to scar. The lumen of the esophagus due to such changes is shrinking.

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Symptoms

A harbinger of the possible appearance of the process is a long painful heartburn. This symptom often bothers people with GERD. In the case where the constriction has developed, symptoms following.

  1. Стриктура (сужение) пищевода: что это такое, симптомы, лечениеDifficulty in swallowing or dysphagia. Manifestation of symptoms depends on the degree of narrowing of the body and steadily progressing.
  2. Profuse salivation. The body tries to adapt to the dysfunction. A large amount of saliva — this kind of protection, for ease of swallowing.
  3. The symptoms of stricture of the esophagus include regurgitation, and in severe advanced situations and regurgitation of food after swallowing.
  4. Pain in chest when swallowing. In the beginning of disease pain occur on coarse food, gradually decreasing the lumen of the esophagus even a few SIPS of the liquid lead to severe pain.

The course of the disease depends on the degree of narrowing of the lumen. Cicatricial stricture of the esophagus sometimes lead to narrowing of the lumen of the organ. Decided to subdivide the development of the disease the degrees.

  1. Ι degree luminal narrowing by almost 2 times. The diameter of the esophagus does not exceed 11 mm, in the study on the pass for medium-caliber endoscope.
  2. II degree — the reduction of the lumen of the esophagus of 6 to 8 mm.
  3. III — esophageal diameter 3-5 mm, on pass for ultrathin endoscope.
  4. AI the esophagus does not pass to the fiberscope, its lumen is less than 2 mm.

Regardless of the reasons for the development of narrowing of the esophagus, the disease progresses steadily, this is one of the reasons leading to disability.

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Treatment

Стриктура (сужение) пищевода: что это такое, симптомы, лечениеThere are no therapeutic treatments for this disease. In people with severe dysphagia, which was caused by peptic stricture, effective treatment is balloon dilatation of the esophagus (probing). For this purpose, the endoscope is introduced into the lumen of the balloon catheters, which gradually increased permeability of the affected organ. Normally, the esophagus expands to 14 mm.

Surgery — the optimal treatment of esophageal strictures in the absence of effect from begerovaya. Performed resection of the affected area of the body. If lesions exist over a large area — remove all the affected Department and the authority in lieu of an intestinal transplant. In the postoperative period for treatment of add blockers proton pump inhibitors or H2-histamine receptors.

What is a stricture of the esophagus, and how to get rid of this disease? This narrowing of the body is the result of exposure to aggressive factors. To get rid of this disease is impossible, but to prevent the disease much easier. For this you need to follow the main disease that can lead to such a process.