Bacterial vaginitis: causes, symptoms, treatment
Bacterial vaginitis is characterized by a strong decrease of lactobacilli and replace it with polymicrobial compounds Gardnerella and anaerobic organisms. The term «bacterial» due to the variety of microorganisms that participate in the formation of vaginitis. A lack in the discharge vaginal white blood cells, which are responsible for the development of inflammation involves the replacement of the term «vaginitis» for the term «vaginosis».
Thus, the most appropriate is the use of the term «bacterial vaginosis». The term «bacterial vaginitis» are considered synonyms for the terms «obesity», «gardnerellosis», «dysbiosis of the vagina». This is a frequently occurring disease in women 35-45 years. Obesity is about 50% of all diseases of the vagina.
Why is there a violation of the microflora of the vagina
Normal vaginal microflora of women consists primarily of lactobacilli (Doderlein sticks) that perform safety functions. In adult women, vaginal epithelial cells contain considerable amount of carbohydrate that is processed lactobacilli to lactic acid. Lactic acid reduces the acidity of the vagina and produces hydrogen peroxide. Together, hydrogen peroxide and vaginal acidic environment, inhibit the breeding of pathogenic microorganisms.
The causes that result in the colonization of vaginal pathogenic microbes is the reduction in the number of lactobacilli. It is not always possible to determine exactly what are the reasons for the decline in the number of lactobacilli in the vagina. Here are a few factors that can cause women have bacterial vaginosis (vaginitis):
- the decrease in General immunity;
- dysbacteriosis of the intestine;
- treatment with antibiotics, steroid drugs. The antibiotic inhibits the growth of lactobacilli;
- the menstrual cycle;
- intrauterine contraception;
- poor nutrition (avoidance of dairy products);
- wearing tight, synthetic underwear that is not breathable;
- wearing panty liners (they also do not allow oxygen, which kills harmful anaerobic bacteria);
- frequent douching, which «washes» useful lactobacilli;
- non-observance of rules of personal hygiene;
- the use of intimate sprays;
- use of soap for intimate hygiene;
- diseases of the endocrine system (diabetes mellitus);
- the use of contraceptives (candles and creams containing 9-nonoxynol).
The symptoms of bacterial vaginitis and diagnosis
Abundant grayish discharge (20-30 ml per day) with a rotten fish smell – the main symptoms of bacterial vaginitis. After intimacy, the smell intensifies, as the alkaline environment of the sperm contributes to the fact that Gardnerella vaginalis increases the production of volatile amines, which emits the smell of rotten fish.
It is also possible to symptoms such as burning and discomfort during sexual intercourse. Symptoms can flare up before menstruation and after.
The symptoms may be completely absent. In recent times the of gynecological diseases and sexually transmitted diseases are asymptomatic. Often a woman learns that her obesity, only when a routine inspection at the gynecologist. Therefore, it is necessary twice a year to undergo a preventive gynecological examination, regardless of the presence of unpleasant symptoms in order to timely detect signs of the disease.
The main symptoms of vaginitis:
- a profusion of white or whitish-gray discharge, sometimes with the addition of blood and an unpleasant odor;
- burning when urination;
- pain in the lower abdomen;
- swelling and redness of the vaginal mucosa;
- discomfort during sexual relations;
- hypoactive sexual desire.
Neglecting the treatment of this disease, can cause inflammation of the vagina, i.e. non-specific vaginitis. Nonspecific vaginitis has the following indications: leucorrhoea with bad smell, itching, burning, pain, hyperemia of the vaginal mucosa due to inflammation.
Obesity can cause more serious diseases including inflammation of the uterus and appendages.
Particularly dangerous non-specific vaginitis for expectant mothers because it can cause premature birth and intrauterine infection of the child. It is much easier to cure bacterial vaginosis at the first symptoms and prevent serious complications.
Passed on whether bacterial vaginosis is sexually transmitted
Gardnerella can be found out in women and men, they are transmitted by sexual contact, but transmission does not always mean that women will have vaginitis, it may be just a carrier of the infection. For men the causative agents of bacterial vaginitis are safe. Men gardnerellas carriers do not require treatment, as well as the sexual partners of women with bacterial vaginosis. However, provided that there are no signs of inflammation.
Methods of treatment
Modern medications (pills, ointments, suppositories) allow it to cure bacterial vaginitis in women. Treat obesity in two stages. The first step is to conduct local treatment and to eliminate pathogenic microflora and Gardnerella. With this task perfectly cope modern antimicrobials: candles, creams, ointments, pills.
Usually, the antibiotic does not apply if there are no signs of an inflammatory process.
The doctor may prescribe various antibiotics, given the severity of inflammation. This can be a broad-spectrum antibiotic «Ceftriaxone» (powder for injection), a Bactericidal antibiotic «Gentamycin» (solution for injection), «Metronidazole» (vaginal suppositories), Pimafucin (vaginal suppositories), «Amoxiclav» (injections or tablets).
Prior to the appointment of systemic or local antibiotics, conducted bacteriological sowing vaginal discharge, which gives the opportunity to determine what antibiotics sensitive bacteria are the causative agents of vaginitis.
It is necessary to spend treatment of opportunistic diseases, the symptoms are bothering the patient, and the use of immunomodulators, vitamins to correct immunity.
The second step is to create the normal microflora of the vagina by restoring the number of lactobacilli and correction of intestinal dysbiosis. Cure bacterial vaginosis, it is advisable to vaccinate against nonspecific vaginitis, trichomoniasis.
- to destroy pathogenic microorganisms which cause infection;
- to normalize the vaginal flora and reduce the pH to normal values.
- to provide long-term protection against recurrence.
Remember that the selection of medicines for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis, be it candles or tablets, solutions for injections, must be carried out exclusively by the attending physician.