Causes of infertility in women — types and symptoms

Infertility is a condition in which the couple having regular sexual intercourse without contraception fails to conceive for 12 months or more. This condition of the body may be a consequence of diseases of the reproductive system. Usually doctors are talking about female infertility as the girls, starting a sex life, doesn’t always have a way of taking care of myself, not using protection or doing abortions. Causes of female infertility are varied, and the first signs of infertility experts see the lack of pregnancy for one or more years. The treatment is often associated with the cause of the disease, so it is important to know why is infertility in women.


The presence of previous pregnancies and female infertility are divided into:

  • Primary, when there was no previous pregnancies.
  • The secondary, which in the past the woman has had at least one pregnancy ended with birth, miscarriage or abortion.


  • Tubal infertility in women, associated with the locking tube channel.
  • Endocrine infertility – hormonal pathology of the sphere.
  • Immunological infertility – the destruction of the immune system in the sperm.
  • Infertility associated with abnormalities in the hemostatic system.
  • Infertility associated with abnormalities of the structure of the genital organs.
  • Psychological infertility – inability to conceive a child in adverse emotional conditions in the absence of organic pathology, and other factors.
  • Idiopathic infertility when the cause is not possible.

Signs of infertility in women

The only symptom of infertility is the inability to conceive for 1 year or more. The condition may be accompanied by the following changes in the reproductive sphere:

  1. Change in menstrual cycle (amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, irregular menstruation).
  2. Chronic pain in the pelvis or lower abdomen (a sign of inflammation of the uterus or appendages).
  3. The problem with the weight (low body weight, obesity or sudden weight fluctuations as a symptom of endocrine disorders).
  4. Burning, discomfort, purulent discharge can speak about a cause of infertility in girls, as genital infection.
  5. Oily skin, acne, growth of unwanted hair on the androgynous type, provoked by such causes of infertility as the activity of androgens and the passivity of the female sex hormones.
  6. The symptom manifested in hyperprolactinemia, is the development of a colorless discharge from the breast that may indicate a high concentration of prolactin in the blood.
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Tubal infertility

Violation of patency of the pipes is one of the most common causes of infertility in women. Often infertility in women is a consequence of the removal of tubes after ectopic pregnancy. The lumen of the pipe and overlaps with the development of adhesions on the background of inflammatory diseases of the pelvic organs.

The obstruction of the fallopian tubes can lead to the need of artificial insemination.

The main factors that can cause infertility:

  1. Inflammation in the female organs, – the statistics show that in recent years are beginning to dominate STDs, increased number of abortions, which can occur inflammatory process that produces the appearance of adhesions in the damaged tissues. Adhesions can appear in a long period of time and are thin films of connective tissue that cover the pipe channel and prevent pregnancy.
  2. Surgery as a factor leading to infertility: abortion, removal of foci of inflammation are factors that cause the formation of scar tissue and adhesions.
  3. Temporary functional disorders – changes not related to the anatomy of the pipe, but causes a persistent violation, leading to infertility. Such violations can occur because of hormonal failure on a background of stress and other factors.

Anxiety symptoms in obstruction of the fallopian tubes are painful menstrual periods, constant pain in the abdomen and in the groin area. The most dangerous manifestation is considered to be an ectopic pregnancy, which can lead to death of women.

Endocrine infertility

Another factor causing infertility, can act as an endocrine disease. Symptoms of endocrine infertility in women often are painful menstruation, menstrual irregularities or complete absence of bleeding. Hormonal imbalances, menstruation may be absent for five or more months, and sometimes appearing allocations are not monthly, and indicate bleeding. In the list of the manifestations of hormonal infertility in women also include:

  • excess body hair;
  • acne;
  • discharge from the breast;
  • weight change – obesity, sudden weight loss.
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The main causes of endocrine infertility in women:

  1. Disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian system. This disorder occurs due to incorrect hormone production. The rhythm of the production of this hormone in strays, and the ovaries do not have time to work on the pituitary, resulting in ovulation occurs. Also it can cause excessive production of prolactin, against which the desired pregnancy does not occur.
  2. Diseases of the thyroid gland, its hyperfunction or deficiency of hormones produced. This problem often manifests itself in adolescence. In the absence of proper treatment develops infertility. With this disorder often miscarriages happen in the early stages, but it is treatable with the right hormone therapy.

Psychological infertility

It is difficult to choose treatment for the psycho-physical cause of infertility. Often stress, as a cause of infertility caused by a major life shock. Being not so big a problem, it nevertheless requires a number of measures related to the change of scenery, relaxation of the mind and other ways of avoiding traumatic factors.

Immunological infertility

Sometimes in a marriage in which the couple was unable to procreate, it is impossible to identify the exact causes of infertility. The possible lack of pregnancy can be immunological in nature – the immune system women synthesizes antibodies. Aggressive substances affect sperm, depriving him of the ability to penetrate the egg. Such a condition is difficult to treat and are not scientifically studied in detail.

Early menopause

The reason for non-occurrence of pregnancy within one year and over may also be early menopause – when the ovaries, for unknown circumstances lose the ability to produce eggs. Symptom of menopause is menopause. On average, it occurs at 50 – 55 years, but may develop menopause at any age. By solving problems in this type of female infertility hormone replacement therapy.

Polycystic ovaries

Polycystic ovaries is a disease directly associated with dysfunction of the endocrine system. Polycystic disease is characterized by the absence of ovulation, when follicles stop developing, the formation of cysts.

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Symptoms of polycystic are:

  • irregularity of the menstrual cycle;
  • excessive activity of male hormones (excess body hair, acne);
  • weight;
  • dragging pain in region of ovaries.

Probable cause polycystic:

  • hormonal disorders;
  • infectious diseases of any etiology;
  • genetic predisposition;
  • psycho-physical factors.


Endometriosis is one of gynecological diseases, characterized by increased growth of the epithelium that covers the uterine cavity, penetrating the ovaries, the bladder, peritoneum, etc., When uncontrolled progression of the disease appear adhesions and scarring, leading to obstruction of the fallopian tubes and lack of ovulation.

Endometriosis is genital (located on the ovaries, fallopian tubes, vagina, etc.), extragenital (enters the intestines, lungs, bladder), combined.

Symptoms of endometriosis:

  • painful cramps in the lower abdomen, especially during sexual intercourse and bowel movement;
  • infertility;
  • spotting – endometriosis grow as it starts to menstruate, the discharge is much darker menstrual blood and begin to present monthly;
  • contact bleeding.

The root causes of the disease:

  1. Gynaecological diseases.
  2. Surgical intervention in the uterus.
  3. Hormonal disturbances – change in ratio of male and female hormones.
  4. Heredity.
  5. Decrease in immunity.

Endometriosis is treated in most cases medically or surgically. If the disease is fairly launched, then in vitro fertilization is used.

Infertility treatment is a long and difficult process that requires a high material and spiritual costs. Currently in Russia there is a program that allows you to get free services related to artificial insemination.