Cervical cancer — symptoms and signs

One of the most common cancers of the reproductive system is cervical cancer. According to statistics it appears about 11 women out of 100 thousand. Age is the most vulnerable to this disease from 35 to 55 years. But every year a growing percentage of young patients under 30 years, who show signs of cancer.

Uterine carcinoma is the occurrence of malignant tumors. Cells appear in the cervical tissue next to the uterus. To develop the disease may decades, and in some cases for several months.

Causes of cervical cancer

Risk factors of this disease is quite broad. But, in 90% of cases of cervical cancer can be quickly cured. For this it is necessary at the slightest suspicion to consult a doctor and start intensive treatment.

Prevention cervical cancer is the careful observance of rules of hygiene, monitoring of vaginal discharge and immediate treatment of sexually transmitted infections.


The most common cause of cancer is the HPV. This oncogene leads to tumor on the uterus wall. The human virus is found in some numbers in the body of every sick woman. He actively develops and provokes cancer even once in the most minimal amounts. The virus is transmitted sexually, while contraception does not provide any protection.

Causes cervical cancer can be:

  • infection papillomavirus;
  • early sexual debut. The fact that at the age of 16 epithelial cells on the walls of the cervix are still evolving. Because of their immaturity, they are more vulnerable to erosion and can degenerate into cancer;
  • disease of cervix: erosion, dysplasia, and others;
  • change sexual partners more frequently than 4 – 5 times per year;
  • a weak immune system;
  • prolonged use of contraceptive drugs. Especially if oral contraceptives were incorrectly matched;
  • abortion at an early age;
  • chlamydia;
  • genital herpes;
  • HIV infection;
  • a chronic lack of vitamin C and A;
  • too much use of carcinogens;
  • the reason can also be burdened heredity. If the family has been patients with cancer and especially cancer of the cervix, that is, the probability of this disease;
  • ingestion of chemical toxins;
  • the radiation exposure;
  • age over 45 years;
  • disturbed monthly cycle for many years;
  • later or too early menopause;
  • obesity;
  • nicotine addiction;
  • alcohol dependence;
  • stress, prolonged depression.

The first signs of cervical cancer

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Cervical cancer – cancer which can be cured at early stages. This requires regular visits to a gynecological office. Every six months every woman should take a PAP smear and carefully monitor their health and any changes in the body.

Special attention should be attributed to the following changes in the body. They may indicate the appearance of cancer in the cervix:

  1. Changing nature of the menstrual cycle. The discharge becomes more abundant and long-lasting. Also symptoms may include pain appearing in this case.
  2. Failures of the cycle. The interval between periods increases and can reach over time six months.
  3. Bleeding in mid-cycle, which quickly appear and also come to an end.
  4. Pain and painful selection during intercourse.
  5. Blood in discharge after physical exertion or strong emotional outburst.
  6. Frequent desire to urinate and pain at the same time.
  7. Blood spotting during menopause.
  8. Abundant mucus, accompanied by an unpleasant burning sensation.
  9. Back pain and lower abdomen.
  10. The symptoms of cervical cancer may manifest as General weakness, drowsiness, fatigue.
  11. In some cases, perhaps, swelling of the legs.

At the beginning of the disease, perhaps the absence of all these signs. Development can proceed very slowly and quietly. Therefore, it is worth to be examined independently at least once a year. If symptoms begin to appear, then immediately should consult a gynecologist.

In the later stages of carcinoma shows more severe symptoms, namely:

  • constant heavy bleeding;
  • urinary incontinence;
  • rectal bleeding;
  • pain during urination with blood;
  • the disruption of the digestive system;
  • swelling of the feet;
  • disorders of the kidneys.

Stage cervical cancer

The cervix is covered by two types of epithelium. Oncologists currently providing 2 types of cancer depending on which layer is affected and how.

Squamous cell carcinoma

This is the most common, occurring in 90% of cases. The cancerous area is formed on the outer surface layer of the epithelium. Cells can quickly proliferate and affect the entire surface of the vagina.


It affects the deeper layers of the epithelium. Occurs approximately in 10% of cases.

This classification helps to choose the right treatment, to determine the timing of development and possible spread of cancer cells.

The size of the affected area can vary significantly. And by the presence of nodes and metastasis is determined by the stage of cervical cancer. 4. Each stage has several sub stages:

  1. 0 stage. This stage is quickly curable. If it cancer cells cover only a small part of the surface of the cervix, not penetrating deep into the mucous membranes. The symptoms remain almost not noticed. This degree is called cervical neoplasia.
  2. Stage 1. When this state is formed the tumor, but it is localized and has not spread to adjacent organs. Lymph nodes at stage 1 are not affected diseased cells. To live with such a diagnosis can be very long – izlechennosti about 100%.
  3. Stage 2. Condition begins to deteriorate significantly. The first signs, the body begins to react to the changes and to falter. Stage means an increase in tumors up to 4 – 6 see the Cancer cells affect the lymph nodes and penetrate deeply into the uterine canal. In cancer of the cervix stage 2 can be cured in 90% of cases.
  4. Stage 3. Cervical tumor reaches a large size, penetrates deep into the closest lymph nodes. At this stage the cancer cells spread to the vagina and the wall of the pelvis. At the same kidney and urinary system ceases to function properly. Overall health is deteriorating. Cervical cancer stage 3 the chances of survival of about 30%.
  5. Stage 4. The tumor at this stage reaches the larger sizes. Cancer affects most organs and completely ruining the body. In this case, cure the patient is almost impossible. Therefore, therapy aimed at the prolongation of life.
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If the girl has cancer 0 or stage 1, the chances of recovery are large. With proper therapy after 2 years the body will be fully restored. In this case, have all chances to get pregnant because the removed cells will not prevent the uterus to perform the fundamental function of child bearing.

The second and third stage of cancer development allows you to live a long life. The chances of a full recovery of about 70%. But at this stage it is necessary to remove the uterus, so that after the therapy there is no possibility to get pregnant.

When cancer cells from the uterus begin to spread to surrounding organs, the treatment can take a huge amount of time, effort and nerves. At stage 4 all the forces thrown at prolonging life and reducing pain.

Looks like cervical cancer and its prevention?

The uterus is a triangular muscular body. Its function is the bearing of the fetus during pregnancy. The length of the body is approximately 7 – 8 cm Base of the uterus located at the top, and the lower part directed toward the vagina. This contraction is called the cervix.

The whole cervical canal is covered by a mucous membrane consisting of epithelium. He is responsible for the production of thick mucus that prevents the ingress of pathogenic microorganisms inside. Any disease of the reproductive system, somehow connected with the uterus. It is therefore necessary to carry out preventive maintenance of their health, namely:

  1. To wean yourself from bad habits – to give up Smoking and alcohol abuse.
  2. Every 6 months be sure to visit the gynecologist.
  3. Immediately to treat sexual infections until complete disappearance of (chlamydia, thrush etc).
  4. Carefully monitor your sex life – do not randomly change partners, do not live a sexual life from 16 – 18 years.
  5. To use protection during sexual intercourse.
  6. Good hygiene – take a shower before and after sexual intercourse, use clean underwear, to monitor the cleanliness of clothes, etc.
  7. Pay special attention to this important period, as pregnancy and childbirth. The fact that it is a huge stress to the body and, in particular, to the uterus. After birth, the baby must pass inspection at the gynecologist every 2 months during the first year.
  8. It is advisable once a year undergo a colposcopy. The procedure aims at a thorough study of the cervix.
  9. Not to self-medicate. This applies to abortions and making birth control oral pills. All these manipulations should be under the supervision of highly qualified doctor.
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