Cervical polyps: symptoms and treatment
Among all gynecological diseases associated with structural changes of the tissues of the reproductive organs, 4% is a polyp of the cervix, the symptoms and treatment of which it is desirable to determine at an early stage of development. Despite the benign nature of the origin of the polyp of the cervix, the particular danger is the probability of malignancy in the absence of adequate treatment. Hidden symptoms increases the risk of late diagnosis and the occurrence of complications, including cancer.
Chronic infectious-inflammatory processes, injury to the cervical canal at the time of the surgical procedures, hormonal changes — the main causes of cervical polyps. A polyp is an abnormal growth of tissue in the cervical canal of the cervix in the form of a pimple, bump, bumps or fungus depending on the type of neoplasm.
Polyp of the cervix is a background disease. He accompanies systemic diseases of the endocrine and reproductive system. Polyps are often diagnosed on the background of dysplasia of the cervix during a pelvic examination. Tumor with a thin stalk or a wide base are also in the body of the uterus – endometrial polyp. Growing beyond it, can be seen by visual inspection of the cervical canal.
Abnormal growth of the endometrium and endocervix may be the cause of infertility. This pathology is often detected in women who cannot get pregnant. Even more dangerous the polyp of the cervical channel is when there are abnormal cells able to transform into a cancer. A striking confirmation of this condition is cervical cancer.
Neglecting regularly scheduled examinations by a gynecologist, a woman automatically gets to group of risk. It may not assume the existence of polyp in endocervix.
The majority of cervical polyps (especially of small size, in the form of a pimple) may not identify themselves because of the lack of pronounced symptoms.
But for the physician, the presence of cervical mucus, even a small pimple is the reason for a more thorough examination of the tumors with the help of colposcopy.
The presence of polyps on the cervix observed in patients of different ages:
- In most cases, the pathology is diagnosed for women entering the menopause in connection with hormonal changes. At the same age are also frequently diagnosed with polyps in the uterus and fallopian tubes.
- Medical statistics shows the increase in the number of structural changes in the uterus and endocervix in women of reproductive age. This phenomenon explains an active sex life, injury to organs through labor and delivery, surgical procedures (abortions, curettage).
- Fix cases of the disease in girls of pubertal age who do not live a sexual life. In this case, the polyp of the cervix develops as a result of the inflammatory process encountered in infection by viruses and bacteria that are on the common goods (as an option bath towel, if it uses a mother and daughter).
The most common cause of infection is the human papilloma virus. In the diagnosis of disease involvement in the development of pathology to consider in the first place with the help of histological examination because of its special oncogenome.
Polyp on cervix during pregnancy — at least common. Its causes can be different: as the hormonal changes characteristic of this period, and infection. Often a pregnant woman learns about the presence of polyp at the time of confirmation of pregnancy.
Symptoms of pathology
Despite the almost complete absence of symptoms in the early stages of development to suspect the presence of pathology can help the following symptoms:
- bleeding from the vagina at the time of or after sexual contact is the main symptom of pathology;
- pain at the time of sexual intercourse, reduce libido;
- pain in the pubic area radiating to the sacrum or perineum;
- the occurrence of hemorrhage (bleeding) in the intermenstrual period, and during menopause;
- unnatural vaginal discharge with purulent content and odor;
- the inability to conceive for a long period.
These symptoms are characteristic of many gynecological diseases and are not 100% a sign of the presence of a polyp of the cervix. However, their presence is always a thrill, and requires specialist advice. To determine the nature of the disease and the cause of its appearance is enough to visit the gynecologist.
Growth on cervix, diagnosed at the time of survey with the help of mirrors, is an absolute indication for the colposcopy. For more in-depth studies resorting to hysteroscopy.
Inserted through the cervical canal into the uterine cavity video camera will allow to deeply investigate the affected area. Polyps in the uterus is also diagnosed through ultrasound.
After careful inspection of the lesion the doctor takes a swab of cervical canal and tissue fragment for further cytological, histological and bacteriological studies. In the complex diagnostic procedures must include the study of blood (including on hormones).
Clinical blood analysis will indicate the magnitude of inflammation in the body’s leukocyte count and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. In the presence of bleeding gynecologist assesses the degree of anemia. Identifying the cause of the disease, the type of pathogen, the doctor prescribes appropriate treatment.
Treatment (removal) of polyps physician conducts the test results. Removal of polyp of the cervix occurs mainly operative way. Surgical intervention is the most effective way to remove tumors and prevent the likely recurrence of the disease in the future.
Removal of the mutated tissue occurs with the help of tools such as:
- laser beam;
- conchotomy (special scissors with forceps in the end).
Isolated elements are removed by the method of twisting the base of the polyp. In the presence of multiple formations shown excision by forceps (a special tool to grip the lesion in the form of a clamp with ratchet and oval jaws with notches).
A method of removing a polyp of the cervix attending physician determines on the basis of such factors as patient age, desire to have children in the future, the cause of the polyp, the presence of systemic diseases of the endocrine and reproductive system.
Pay special attention to the manipulations nulliparous women. Scarring and adhesions leads to breaks in the time labor. Wrong remote polyp triggers a structural change of tissue and possible infertility in the future.
Issecheny material sent to the laboratory for further histological examination.
Further treatment includes the following steps:
- Cauterization of the wound surface is performed to prevent possible bleeding of wounds and prevent secondary infections of pathogenic flora. The lesion cauterize liquid nitrogen (cryosurgery), high frequency (electrocoagulation), the special chemical means Solkovagina. Sometimes resort to radiowave therapy using the Surgitron machine to minimize contact with the wound surface.
- Antibacterial therapy involves the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics prophylactically to reduce the risk of wound infection in the postoperative period. To use shows such groups of antibiotics like cephalosporins, macrolides, penicillins.
- Antiviral drugs are prescribed to suppress the activity of viruses, particularly in cases of suspected infection with human papillomavirus (Lavomax, Laferobion, Interferon).
- Anti-inflammatory, analgesic drugs reduce the redness, reduce the pain. They are shown in the case of the inflammatory process in endocervix. Use drugs such as Nurofen, Diclofenac, Nimesil, and others.
- Means restoring the vaginal flora: Vasilak, Lactogen etc.
- Hormone treatment is indicated for confirmation of hormonal dysfunction. They eliminate the disruption of the natural cycle, pain, reduce the risk of bleeding and rebirth in Oncology. System hormones the doctor prescribes based on data from clinical blood tests. Sometimes the gynecologist may recommend the use of hormonal birth control Mirena spiral, which contains a minimal amount of hormones needed for postoperative recovery.
- Sedatives are prescribed to restore mental and emotional equilibrium (tincture of Valerian, motherwort, notta). Many women with anxiety waiting for the surgery, worried if a polyp of the cervix to remove painlessly. Do not worry about it. All manipulations performed under intravenous or local anesthesia therefore the woman will not feel pain.
- Vitamin complexes taken in the period of rehabilitation, enhance the body resistance, reduce the risk of recurrence.
- Treatment of folk remedies involves the use of herbal infusions for irrigation and fedotenkov. Natural antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, accelerates epithelialization and wound healing properties of such plants as chamomile, calendula, celandine, St. John’s wort, succession, oak bark, willow, sea-buckthorn oil, peach oil, aloe juice. You need to understand that to treat folk remedies polyp of the cervix can only be symptomatic of the complex of traditional treatment regimens. No grass is not a substitute for therapy.
The course of treatment and dose drugs doctor sets individually on the basis of anamnesis data. Control examination within the prescribed by a doctor period is a prerequisite for the prevention of complications. The probability of degeneration of cervical polyps into malignant tumor is always present.
The question of how to remove how polyps on the cervix during pregnancy interested in pregnant women, faced with such a diagnosis at the time of confirmation of the new regulation. Polyp of the cervix, diagnosed in a pregnant woman provides a different treatment strategy.
In most cases, a polyp of the cervix during pregnancy occurs as a result of the hormonal changes the body after birth and disappears without treatment. However, this does not always happen. Despite the infectious nature of the origin of the polyp of the cervix no manipulation is carried out until the moment of delivery. Only in the postpartum period, a woman can have a full examination and appropriate treatment.
The recovery period should adhere to the following guidelines:
- limitation of physical activity;
- the rejection of sexuality within 14 – 28 days until complete healing of the wound surface;
- timely treatment of any infectious diseases in the body;
- lack of stress;
- the ban on visits to common areas (baths, saunas, swimming pools);
- prevention of abortion;
- the full observance of sexual hygiene;
- the lack of casual sex
- regular consultation (at least 1 every six months);
- strict compliance with the recommendations of the attending physician.
Timely thorough diagnosis of any structural changes in the tissues of the vagina, cervix and uterine body in the first symptoms, the competent approach and appropriate therapy significantly reduce the likelihood of progression of the disease, the degeneration of polyps to cancer.