Cervicitis and endocervicitis cervix, what is it

Cervicitis cervical disease among all gynecologic sphere occupies a leading position. According to recent statistics the disease is detected in 67% of women presenting with similar symptoms to the gynecologist. Inflammation of the cervix is not fatal, but gives a very serious complications. 40% of women with cervicitis doctors detect cervical erosion, requiring immediate treatment. The disease is usually observed combinatorial inflammation of the vagina (colpitis, vulvovaginitis).

Anatomical digression

The cervix represents the lower part of the well – known organ- the uterus. The neck consists of two parts: vaginal and cervical. The vaginal portion can be viewed using the standard pelvic examination, take swabs for Cytology, and other laboratory tests. The cervical canal is presented in the form of a tube up to 5 cm. Normal vaginal part has a pinkish color, painless. Thanks to the cervical channel, the uterus is protected from the conventionally pathogenic microflora, and during pregnancy in the thickness of the cervical canal is formed by the mucous plug that protects the future of the embryo from pathogenic microorganisms, «sealing» the uterus from the outside. The protective function of the cervical canal and the glandular cells begins to decline, if in descending departments start inflammatory processes. In this case, the inflammation goes first on vaginal part and called ectocervical, as if affected by cervix – endocervicitis.

What are the causes of the disease

Inflammation of the cervix triggered by infectious agents. When you create certain conditions, even conditionally pathogenic microflora can harm their own habitat. The disease is caused by specific and non-specific bacteria.

The microorganisms that lead to nonspecific endocervicitis:

  • Escherichia coli;
  • fungi of the genus Candida;
  • staph;
  • Streptococcus;
  • Klebsiella.

Bacteria enter in the vaginal part for many reasons. Most often, this is a wrong cleaning woman when she takes the washcloth, at first, tempted the anus, and then small and large labia. Even E. coli can get into the reproductive way after anal sex.

Specific flora is characterized by certain clinical manifestations, representatives of this group of bacteria are:

  • the gonococcus of Neiser;
  • Treponema pallidum (the causative agent of syphilis, also known as soft chancre);
  • Trichomonas;
  • amoeba;
  • chlamydia;
  • HPV (human papillomavirus);
  • the herpes simplex virus.

Specific microorganisms have their own symptoms. For example, the gonococcus of Neiser, in addition to abdominal pain are observed purulent discharge, and Trichomonas – frothy liquid with an unpleasant odor.

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Such gynecological diseases, can be triggered by the following factors:

  • weakened immunity in the autumn-winter period;
  • as a result of dysfunction of ovaries (in particular, synthesis of estrogen);
  • menopausal period;
  • diseases of the endocrine system;
  • other gynecological diseases (such as: adnexitis, colpitis).

Frequent change of sexual partners is not only a sign of inexperience women, but also one of the leading causes of cervical erosion. Scientists have proven that women with promiscuous at risk of «cancer in place» in the region of the vaginal portion of the cervix by 90%. The female body «gets used» to one man, and the immune system begins to form specific immune complexes. When a woman changes partner, then there is a «restructuring» of these complexes, leading to disruption of cell division (cervical epithelium) and the development of erosion.


Endocervicitis the cervix, what is it and what symptoms of disease? It all depends on the course of the disease and its forms. Inflammation occurs in chronic, acute, purulent form. Accordingly, the symptoms and treatment for each clinical form will be slightly different. First affects the cervical canal of the cervix, and then the inflammation goes on the vaginal part. This fact is connected with presence deep in the cervical canal to the special glandular cells, which synthesize substances that interfere with the progression of the infection by ascending paths, which leads to a «spillover» of infectious agents directly into the vagina.

The acute form

Cervicitis cervix begins gradually. First, there is:

  • itching and burning in the reproductive ways;
  • body temperature rises to 38 degrees;
  • there is pain during sex (maybe contact bleeding);

Then these symptoms include abnormal discharge from the vagina. Aggravation increases after menstruation, because blood is an excellent breeding ground for microorganisms.


If you do not take any measures in the acute phase, it becomes chronic. Self-treatment of the acute phase may enhance the resistance of the pathogen to drugs and become chronic. Symptoms begin to be less distinct, sometimes sharpening, after the decline in the immune system. The discharge becomes turbid, and in place of the columnar epithelium starts erosion, which is a precancerous condition. If the process does not interfere with, abnormal cells begin to enter inside the cervix, leading to its thickening and compaction.

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Purulent form

This clinical form is more infectious nature of the flow. Purulent cervicitis occurs on the background of concomitant diseases sexually transmitted diseases (gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, chlamydia). It has the following manifestations:

  • profuse discharge from reproductive ways, purulent character with an unpleasant odor;
  • signs of General intoxication;
  • soreness in the abdomen;
  • bleeding that is not associated with menstruation.

Purulent inflammation is difficult to treat due to resistance of pathogens. Often bacteria moving along the ascending pathways, causing inflammation of the endometrium and of the uterine appendages. Flora tend to form infiltrates, abscesses.

Cervicitis in pregnant women

Cervicitis cervix has hidden symptoms during pregnancy. Since the cervical canal is covered with a special mucous plug protecting the uterus. However, if infection occurred before pregnancy, infection of the fetus.

Diagnosis of disease

Inflammation of the cervix occurs in half of women are asymptomatic. Most part detected during routine gynaecological examinations or treatment of women with symptoms of a burning sensation in the genital area. Diagnosis is done via:

  • inspection on the gynecological chair (made by a gynecologist with the help of vaginal mirrors);
  • fence smear for cytological examination (smear done from the vaginal portion and the cervical canal to identify inflammation of the cervix and detection of atypical cells);
  • special laboratory methods (policana reaction, immunofluorescence analysis).

During the classical view in mirror you can see the swelling and redness of the cervix. When you neglect the process of the erosion part is observed in the form of bright red spots that tend to bleed. But even in this case, physicians are inclined to laboratory research.

PAP smears are the most informative because you can see not only the histological status of this region, but the tissue as a whole. If there is a suspected infection, doctors do bacteriological swab which is delivered to the laboratory where analysis is carried out.

Inflammation of the cervix should be treated by a doctor. If you self-medicate, it can be a very big harm. Any treatment, including gynecological patients, has two directions: conservative (medical) and operative (surgical).

Conservative therapy

Inflammation of the cervix requires, first and foremost etiotropic treatment aimed at eliminating the causes of disease. Appointed by broad-spectrum antibiotics (erythromycin, Ceftriaxone, tetracycline). It is advisable to do the test for the sensitivity of the specific pathogen to the antibiotic to antimicrobial therapy had results. If the cause was the human papillomavirus, prescribers completely different group.

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As a topical treatment prescribed solution Dimexidum, hlorofillipta. You can make a douching oxidizing agents (potassium permanganate), but not much to get excited about. Any action must be negotiated by all means with your doctor.

After the elimination of symptoms of the inflammatory process are assigned to physiotherapy. They include:

  • warming of the abdomen and an ultra-high frequency (UHF);
  • electrophoresis (shown in the case of chronic process).

Surgical treatment

When inflammation of the cervix becomes chronic, or erosion is degenerating into true cancer, then resort to surgical methods of treatment. Training will be conservative therapy aimed at reducing inflammation, swelling. Gynecologists use the following types of interventions:

  • erosion freezing with liquid nitrogen;
  • effects on atypical region with a laser;
  • electrocoagulation (used a special instrument that «cuts» proposed location with the help of electric current);

Most often used electrocoagulation. This method is simple in technical terms to the gynecologist, and even interns can carry out an operation of this kind without any complications. The heat bakes the blood vessels, excluding bleeding from the cervix. The recovery period takes 2 – 3 weeks. After surgery, apply an anti-inflammatory vaginal suppositories, vaginal douching with antiseptics.

What complications can occur?

Endocervicitis cervix, what has now become clear. But what complications arise with this disease? The most common complications are:

  • infertility due to the formation of adhesions in the pelvis;
  • the spread of infection higher in the reproductive ways;
  • the degeneration to cancer.

To prevent the onset of complications need as quickly as possible to identify endocervicitis treatment of the disease. As the disease are asymptomatic, women with predisposing factors, should regularly visit the gynecologist, to carry out cytological scrapings from the cervix.