Diseases of mammary glands in women
The condition of the female breast depends on physiological processes that affect the body of any woman. Part of the female reproductive system consists of paired glands of external secretion – mammary glands, which are responsible for lactation for feeding the baby. According to statistics, diseases of the breast in women is one of the leading places in terms of frequency of occurrence. The article describes the types of diseases and what symptoms you should pay attention.
General causes of diseases
The structure of the mammary glands is unstable and changes in women because of glandular breast tissue is very sensitive to hormone levels. The balance of hormones changes during life. In puberty, the level of hormone increases, the breast starts to increase. Upon reaching the reproductive age, during pregnancy and lactation there are significant changes in hormone production by the ovaries, pituitary gland and adrenal gland. Closer to menopause hormonal level gradually decreases, and breast tissue thins and becomes less elastic.
In hormonal balance affects not only the uncontrolled intake of hormonal contraceptives, but other common reasons are:
- lack of pregnancy and childbirth (unrealized reproductive function);
- abortions and miscarriages;
- the avoidance of breastfeeding;
- inflammatory gynecological diseases;
- genetic predisposition;
In addition to the formation of tumors in the breast can affect non-specific carcinogenic factors: prolonged exposure to the sun or in a Solarium without a bra, alcohol abuse, Smoking, high-calorie unbalanced diet, excessive weight, prolonged stress.
The types of diseases and peculiarities of origin
When injury of the breast appears closed injury in which damaged tissue in a breast. To injury can be the result of home injury, the crush in public transport, during sports or during a car accident. The injury hurts, can be formed hematoma, which is bruising. If there are external injuries of the breast skin (abrasions, scratches), then through them into the tissue can penetrate microbes.
Some injuries are complicated by bleeding and suppuration. Any injury of the chest, the presence of bruising should consult a doctor for examination.
After giving birth the body’s defenses women decrease, which increases the likelihood of diseases. If the nipple is flat and not ready for feeding, the size of the ducts are so narrow that they could not cope with the excretory function of the gland, the breast has sagged shape, the woman refuses to breastfeeding in General or due to the pain feeding due to cracked nipples or mild sucking activity of the child, it creates conditions for development of the lactose.
Lactose – accumulation of milk in the ducts of the mammary glands. When the outflow is complicated, compacted iron, appear painful on palpation, may become red areas of the skin. Sometimes low-grade fever (37,1 – 38,0°C).
To prevent the occurrence of lactose or reduce negative effects will enable complete emptying of the breast. If the child is not sucking the milk, need to pump the leftovers. Before feeding will help dry heat or a warm shower, massage strokes. After feeding for 15 – 20 minutes of applying cold to reduce swelling and inflammation.
If time does not eliminate the lactose, it will lead to mastitis.
Breast cyst occurs when the duct of the gland is expanded in the ensuing cavity accumulates fluid. Cysts may be multiple, of various shapes (oval, sphere, irregular shapes) and size (from several millimeters to several centimeters). For a long time they are formed without any symptoms. Degeneration of the cyst to a malignant tumor is rare, however, the factor such a risk exists.
The cause of the cysts may become mastitis, pathological processes of the thyroid, dysfunctional ovarian disorders, inflammatory gynecological diseases, hormonal imbalance with excessive production of estrogen.
Benign treat hormone-dependent tumors. Emerge and change in different age periods depend on the phase of the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, lactation, intensity of the climacteric period.
Breast group of breast diseases associated with abnormal growth of the tissues of the gland. Is formed as a result of the impaired relationship between the glandular, connective and fatty tissues in the extinction of the reproductive function. A typical symptom of mastitis – detection by palpation of painful seals in the chest, and the pain becomes more tangible in the second phase of the menstrual cycle.
The circumstances that contribute to the development of mastitis:
- earlier menarche;
- early menopause;
- disturbed menstrual cycle;
- the absence in the anamnesis of pregnancy and birth.
- late first childbirth;
- more than three abortions or miscarriages;
- irregular sexual life (or a long period of abstinence);
- gynecological diseases with higher levels of estrogen;
- a short lactation period (less than 6 months);
- endocrine disorders;
- genetic predisposition.
A type of mastitis is a mammary gland adenoma – benign tumor formed from glandular epithelial tissue due to imbalances of estrogen. The form is a ball or sphere. Diagnosed in young women of reproductive age, almost does not appear in women aged 40 – 45 years. Not degenerates into malignancy.
Fibroadenoma – benign tumor of connective tissue. Looks like a rounded tumor of dense consistency, palpation is defined as a mobile node. Like finding a lump in her breast, an urgent need to consult a breast to eliminate malignancy of the tumor.
Breast cancer is a malignant neoplasm of glandular tissue. In the early stages there are no visible symptoms and pain. Locally manifests itself in the form changed shape and skin of the breast, nipple vtjazhenija. Sometimes there is discharge from the nipple (similar to colostrum, mixed with blood). During the inspection palpation dense formations, significantly increased lymph nodes above the collarbone or armpits. It is important to remember that it detected in the early stages of a malignant tumor can be successfully cured with surgical intervention in combination with the use of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In the later stages the tumor can metastasize to other organs, since cancer cells multiply uncontrollably and very quickly.
Breast disease is dangerous because for a long time can cause pain and discomfort. It is therefore very important recommended by doctors routine exams and conducting self-diagnosis.
Women are advised to carry out monthly self-breast exam on a 5 – 7 day cycle, when the tension of the breast. First test bra, to be sure, in the absence of secretion from the nipple. Then stand up in front of the mirror with her hands folded, and visually assess the size, shape of the breast. Inspect the skin and nipples for the presence of lumps, rashes, diaper rash, cracks.
Then slid a hand behind his head, watching closely, uniformly moving iron. If the chest rises with a delay or with both his hands raised, one iron swerves, if after changing position visible to a depression or bulge, there are changes in nipple or discharge from it is a sign that you should immediately consult a specialist.
One breast palpate with fingertips from the opposite hand. Gently and without pressing on the gland, moving from the base of the breast to the nipple. Examined the the breast completely, palpate the axillary and supraclavicular depressions to check lymph nodes.
Examining the chest while standing, repeat the diagnosis lying down.
In medical practice, in addition to external inspection and palpation we use modern equipment that allows to detect the internal structure of the breast tumors, and to fix their shape, boundaries and size, location and character.
Mammography – an overview x-ray examination with the minimum radiation. Pictures are made in two projections: straight and oblique, which allows to detect possible tumors. All women older than 40 years should undergo mammography annually.
Using ultrasound to get clear images of the breast from different angles. Ultrasound is used during pregnancy and lactation, as safe compared to the radiographic method.
Computed tomography is used in cases when, after mammography and ultrasound, there are doubts about the nature of the tumor, or when confirmed breast cancer.
Biopsy taking samples of tissue for subsequent cytological examination in the laboratory. By this method specify the quality of the tumor in order to accurately diagnose the presence or absence of breast cancer.
Many factors contributes to the emergence and development of diseases of mammary glands. To the high risk put a woman cancer in close relatives. Even in the absence of hereditary predisposition need to be regularly and systematically inspected the chest. Women 30 – 35 years need to do an ultrasound and every 2 – 3 years mammography. After 40 years, mammography is strongly recommended to do every year, after 50 years – every six months.
Optimal prophylaxis to prevent disease is:
- timely, complete cure of inflammation of genitals;
- stabilization of a hormonal background;
- timely implementation of the reproductive function;
- replacement of carcinogenic habits for a healthy lifestyle;
- wearing comfortable, not squeezing Breasts, bras;
- positive emotions.
The woman is very important carefully and to treat my body. If you experience chest pain, slight discharge from the nipples, sensation of heaviness, burning, it is important to urgently consult the doctor. Many diseases are successfully cured in the early stages, in some cases without surgery.