Ectasia mammary duct, symptoms and treatment
Breast pathology is one of the most common reasons women go to the doctor. Ectasia of mammary ducts is not a dangerous condition and it occurs due to the development of other changes in the body. But this phenomenon often indicates anxiety diseases that require rapid intervention. Therefore, it is necessary to recognize the warning signs of this disease in time to see a specialist.
Anatomy of the mammary glands — what do they change
For a more accurate understanding of the processes occurring in the body, you need to have an idea of its structure. Mammary gland secretes milk, filled with nutrients. It consists of glandular tissue divided into lobules. Each of them contains the excretory duct, which flow into each other, forming a path for outflow of milk. In the end they all come together, and a few mouths and open at the top of the nipple.
Milk production is regulated by prolactin, which increases during lactation. The rest of the time this is the basic hormone secretion, and therefore in the gland formed a little milk. Since its volume is small, it is not highlighted and is absorbed back.
- hormonal disorders;
- inflammatory processes in the chest;
- hormonal changes in menopause;
- tumors of the breast.
Pathology occurs equally often left and right. To hormonal disorders typical two-way dectective.
Main stages of pathogenesis
Increased secretion into the blood prolactin causes increased production of viscous milk from which clots are formed. They close the excretory ducts and obstruct the outflow. This leads to an increase of pressure in the lumen of the duct and dilatation.
After inflammation adhesions form, and structure of the gland varies. Due to the deformation of the excretory ducts of the lobules are pressed and milk outflow is hindered. For this reason, perhaps the development of dectective after injury.
Neoplasms (tumors, polyps), which are located near the areola, which prevents the passage of milk, as squeeze mouth of duct or grow into the fabric. As a rule, in this case the mammary gland is strongly deformed, and symptoms of dectective go by the wayside.
The imbalance of hormones in postmenopause or in the pathologies of the organs of the neuroendocrine regulation leads to increased levels of estrogen in the blood. It has a specific action on the epithelium of the milk ducts:
- cells hipertrofiada;
- increase in size;
- strenuously to produce milk.
As a result, against the background of increased milk production are formed narrow sections, before which increases the clearance.
The clinical picture and symptoms
Dectective is manifested by local symptoms that arise due to the deformation and changes in the structure of the excretory ducts. Symptoms develops on the background of full health, and often the patient does not immediately notice the above symptoms. Main symptoms:
- the offset nipple to the side;
- unexpressed pain in the region of the areola;
- unpleasant sensations — burning, discomfort, itching;
- the nipple becomes retracted and may be slightly deformed;
- the allocation of a small amount of white or yellow liquid.
Deformation and change of position of the nipple associated with a concentration near the mouths of the milk ducts. Itching and discomfort occur due to irritation of the tissue in the place of the secretions.
Accurate diagnosis is based on:
- the clinical picture;
- history, in which there are symptoms accompanying the disease;
- data of the medical examination.
Depending on the causes that led to dectective, prescribe the following methods of diagnosis are:
- determination of hormone levels in the blood;
- Ultrasound to clarify the lesion;
- bacteriological, microscopic examination of eye-catching liquid.
The basic method is the mammogram, i.e. an x-ray examination of the breast. It can help to determine:
- the expansion and contraction of ducts;
- inflammation and sclerosis;
PAP smears allows to specify the presence of inflammation. In addition, when the microbiological test determines the type of agent that gives you the ability to choose the right antibacterial agent. For more accurate diagnosis of the causes of narrowing of the duct professionals may use a biopsy with the aim of differentiating the type of tumor or its exceptions.
The extension of the ducts of the breast is one of the manifestations of the disease, that is a symptom. Therefore, this pathology is treated independently, and comprehensively with the underlying disease.
Conservative therapy is applied, when excluded cancer disease and mechanical barriers in the ducts. At the same time use:
- antibiotics — cephalosporins, penicillins, etc.;
- the vitamins of different groups — A, B, C;
- local treatment antibacterial ointments;
- hormonal means;
- with prolonged duration of inflammation in therapy include glucocorticoids.
If dectective appeared due to compression of tissue by tumor, the only way resection of the changed area. Deformation of the gland, leading to the displacement of its structures after multiple sclerosis and chronic inflammation, are also treated surgically.
The amount of interference depends on the size of the pathological entity. Mostly sectoral resection, rarely is total removal of the breast along with the lymph nodes. Last do with malignant tumors.
Ducktail associated with neurohumoral failures, treat natural substitutes for hormones. The therapy is done under the careful control of the level of progesterone, estrogen and prolactin in the blood.
Thus, despite the fact that dectective is not a separate disease, it requires attention and a complex treatment, as often accompanies serious illness. Traditional methods of therapy in this pathology is ineffective.