Fibroadenoma phyllodes — symptoms and treatment whether to dissolve itself
Fibroadenoma phyllodes is a rare breast tumor, belonging to the group of potentially dangerous tumors because of the high risk of transition into sarcoma (breast cancer).
In most cases the tumor is in the early stages respond well to treatment, but requires obligatory surgical intervention and follow-up. Causes, symptoms, methods of diagnosis of phyllodes fibroadenoma of this paper.
Phyllodes fibroadenoma: causes
Phyllodes fibroadenoma (feloidea tumor) refers to the category of benign tumors of the breast, but requires special attention: approximately 5% of cases, over time the tumor becomes malignant form – sarcoma (breast cancer).
The tumor is diagnosed in women of all ages, regardless of their health status. But since the main cause of the disease is considered a hormonal imbalance in the body, particular risk are:
- teenage girls in puberty – 12 to 20 years;
- women during menopause – after the age of 45.
Other factors that indirectly provoking the emergence and growth of tumors carry estrogen status and metabolic disorders:
- pregnancy and lactation;
- the use of hormonal contraceptives;
- thyroid disease, liver, diabetes;
- diagnosed with fibroadenoma of the uterus or ovaries%
- late menopause (after 55 years);
- early menarche (before 12 years);
- unrealized reproductive function;
- frequent abortions, miscarriages.
Villainy fibroadenoma develops in the stroma of mammary glands – connective and adipose tissue: ligaments, ducts, lobules, blood and lymphatic vessels.
For phyllodes tumor characterized by initially slow development (5-10 years) followed by a significant acceleration of growth over the past few months, she can reach gigantic proportions.
The average size of the tumor to 5 – 9 cm, maximum 45 cm. On the structure of the tumor consists of several layers, resembling segments or “leaves”. Phyllodes tumor can occur in one or in both Breasts at the same time.
The symptoms of the disease include:
- The presence of single or multiple nodules in the region of the breast detected by palpation. The most common tumor of small size diagnosed in the upper part of the chest, less progressive tumor can involve the whole gland.
- Change the color of the skin at the tumor site – the skin becomes thinner, acquires a bluish tint with a distinctly emerges venous mesh, in severe stages formed small abscesses and ulcerations.
- Pain when pressing on his chest.
- Discharge from the nipple.
- With progressive growth – deterioration of General health status, weakness, rarely fever, fever, chills.
In contrast to other benign types, a characteristic feature of nodes in a leaf-like form is their “merging” with the skin, similar happens when cancerous tumors – carcinoma and sarcoma.
Important! Since tumor growth can happen quickly for women for many years, symptoms also may be weakly expressed or completely absent. Self-diagnose the presence of tumors at home is almost impossible.
The main problem of diagnosis of the tumor is hidden within and the similarity with other types of fibroadenomas. The discovery of seals, other suspicious symptoms requires immediate treatment to the doctor.
Physician breast diagnosis is carried out in several stages:
- External examination of the condition of mammary glands and family anamnesis.
- Biochemical analysis blood analysis on hormones.
- Ultrasonic examination of the breast – to exclude the presence of cysts and to confirm the diagnosis;
- MRI – magnetic resonance imaging – in the case of penetration of the tumor into other tissues and organs.
- Biopsy (puncture) with subsequent histological examination of the material– the most accurate method for determining the nature of tumors (benign, malignant or borderline), and stage of lesions.
Independently shrink or even “disappear” this kind of tumor can not under any circumstances. Methods of radiation and hormone therapy is also ineffective and is not recommended.
The only method of treatment is surgery, which is carried out methods:
- Ablation – removal of a fibroadenoma by laser, in which under the influence of a powerful beam of light energy the tumor is destroyed on a cellular level.
- Cryoablation is the destruction of the tumor by extremely low temperatures of liquid nitrogen. In Russia, the high-tech and less traumatic method is almost never used, but is widely used in Western Europe and the United States, and Israel.
- Enucleation – minimally invasive removal of the tumor by excision through a small incision in the area of the tumor. Is characterized by a short recovery period, absence of visible postoperative scars. After a few months on the site of the lesion formed a new connective tissue.
- Lumpectomy – removal of tumor with a minimal amount of adjacent healthy tissue. Operation is only possible at small sizes of the affected area.
- Sectoral resection – organ-preserving operation in which the fibroadenoma is removed with the breast part. The surgery is performed under General anesthesia. Of the shortcomings – often after surgery is a strong deformation of the shape of the breast that require cosmetic correction.
- Subcutaneous or radical mastectomy (full breast removal) is carried out rarely, only in cases of large size of the tumor and its malignant nature.
Villainy fibroadenoma almost never spreads to the axillary lymph nodes, so removing them is not shown and is not made.
Phyllodes fibroadenoma during pregnancy
One of the most exciting moments for many women is the question of the impact of fibroadenoma of leaf type on pregnancy and fetal development.
By itself, the fibroadenoma is not a contraindication to pregnancy, no adverse effects on the fetus.
But under the influence of enhanced production of estrogen, increases the chance of rapid progressive growth. Fibroadenoma may prevent breastfeeding: a threat to the lactose (milk stagnation) and mastitis (inflammation of breast).
For these reasons, women with a history of phyllodes tumor even of small size, shows its removal during the period of pregnancy planning.
Phyllodes tumor threat high probability of re-occurrence and relapse: patients previously diagnosed with tumors, it is recommended constant monitoring by the doctor mammologist, especially during the first two to three years after removal of fibroadenoma.
During the recovery period, you must:
- seeking the advice of an endocrinologist to exclude hormonal abnormalities that caused the primary origin of the tumor;
- external examination of the breast by a breast physician at least two times a year;
- at least once a year, conduct mammography studies and ultrasound.
- MRI if you suspect the presence of metastasis, the lesions of other organs.
General recommendations the postoperative period include: the introduction of a proper diet, quitting Smoking and alcohol, moderate exercise, a balanced mode of working day and rest.
Phyllodes fibroadenoma – a serious disease affecting the mammary gland of a woman. Without proper treatment, under the influence of precipitating factors, the tumor can rapidly grow in size, causing physical and psychological discomfort to develop into a deadly form, malignant – sarcoma of the breast. Therefore, the most effective method of treatment of tumors is surgical removal by minimally invasive method with subsequent medical supervision.