Fibrous tissue, treatment of fibrosis of the breast
Fibrous tissue – type of connective tissue consisting of collagenous and elastic fibers, and provides a relatively high tensile strength. Mechanical injury and occurring in the body inflammatory processes contribute to its growth and enhancing collagen production, which leads to the formation of nodes and induration (fibrosis). In women this pathology predominantly develops in the mammary glands.
The mechanism and the reasons for the development of fibrosis in women
In the development of inflammation or mechanical damage aktiviziruyutsya fibroblasts for isolation of healthy membranes from infection or hemorrhage. They accelerate the production of collagen, elastin and cells of the glycoprotein, which are the basis of connective tissue. This process can occur in all internal organs.
Often fibrosis of the stroma develops in women of reproductive and menopausal age in the mammary glands and the uterus (myometrium). As a result of pathological proliferation of connective tissue, formation of scar and seals there is an inevitable disruption of the body. So, fibrosis of the stroma the myometrium is the cause missed abortion and infertility.
The main reason for the development of fibrosis is a change in the level of hormones in the blood during pregnancy, lactation, menopause and as a result of natural or artificial abortion.
Among the common factors giving rise to replacement cells in the connective tissue of organs, include:
- genetic predisposition;
- diseases of the thyroid and pancreas;
- the use of hormonal contraceptives (pills, IUDs);
- inflammatory processes in the uterus and ovaries;
- the course of study (radiotherapy), hormonal therapy;
- early puberty;
- late pregnancy;
- mechanical tissue damage;
- allergic reactions;
- bad habits;
- unfavorable ecological situation;
- stressful situation.
In addition to the above causes fibrosis of the breast may occur due to avoidance of breastfeeding.
The proliferation of connective tissue in the breast often causes fibrosis of the endometrium, which develops as a result of penetration of infection into the uterus. This can happen if you violate the rules of personal hygiene (improper use of tampons during menstruation), rupture of the tissue during a natural delivery, after surgical interventions (caesarean section).
Fibrosis of the breast: forms and symptoms
The breast consists of fatty, glandular and fibrous tissues. With age, the lower fertility, fat cells are replaced by glandular. The main function of the stroma is to support their location, formation of the walls of the ducts and partitions between the lobules of the parenchyma.
With the development of mastitis stroma expands and displaces the glandular cells, which are converted into cavities (cysts). If the breast is dominated by connective tissue, fibrosis develops, the nature of which depends on the shape of the course of disease.
At the initial stage of the disease there is local fibrosis. For this type characterized by the formation of motile (not welded to the skin) of the nodes (cysts), with clear contours and smooth surface. They are round and reach a size from 0.2 cm to 3 cm. Pockets easy to detect on palpation.
If untreated, the connective tissue expands, displacing the cells of the parenchyma and fat. Full breast lesion is called extensive (diffuse) fibrosis. It has no clear boundaries by touching it.
In women of menopausal age often develops peridocially fibrosis (plasmocytoma). It is characterized by the growth of the stroma around the ducts.
When ductules fibrosis the excess formation of connective tissue occurs inside the milk duct and the surrounding tissue unaffected. Is a kind of periductal form.
Peridocially perivascular fibrosis covers the area around the ducts, lymphatic and blood vessels.
Excessive growth (proliferation) and interlobular connective tissue vnutriportovaya is called a linear (interlobular) fibrosis. Palpation chest palpation dense bands, the contours of which are clearly visible on the mammographic image.
Symptoms of fibrosis of the breast:
- the presence of mobile nodes or compacted plots in different locations that do not cause the feeling of pain on palpation;
- discoloration of the skin over the affected gland (not always found);
- liquid discharge from the nipple with blood or transparent;
- discomfort in the chest (pain, heaviness, pressure from the inside);
- strong pulling pain during menstruation, radiating to the region of the armpit and shoulder;
- swelling and engorgement of the mammary glands in premenstrual period.
If in the process of proliferation of fibrous tissue formed cysts, when palpation there is a feeling of pain before menstruation can increase lymph nodes. In the dynamics of the disease size of knots increase.
Depending on the strength of manifestation of the characteristic symptoms of fibrosis of the breast can be mild and pronounced.
Diagnosis of fibrosis of the breast
For the diagnosis of fibrosis of the breast is necessary to consult a mammologist and gynecologist. During the conversation, the specialist discovers the presence of a genetic predisposition to this disease and chronic diseases, the date and nature of last menstrual period, whether the use of hormonal drugs, including for contraception.
Produced after palpation of the chest, are appointed by additional tests:
- General analysis of blood;
- mammography (the breast);
- a blood test for hormone levels;
- Breast ultrasound and pelvic;
- dopplersonography – study located in the mammary glands blood vessels and movement of blood through them;
- x-rays of the ducts using contrast medium (chromatography);
- taking puncture of the neoplasm and its cytologic study;
- computed tomography and MRI.
If the presence of tumors is confirmed, it is necessary to consult an oncologist, since women with fibrous changes in the breast are at risk of developing breast cancer.
Treatment of fibrosis of the breast
When the diagnosis of fibrosis treatment should not be delayed. Depending on the severity of the pathology to therapy using surgical or conservative method. At the initial stages of the disease respond well to medical treatment.
In the choice of tactics considered the reasons for the development of fibrosis, patient age, presence of inflammatory processes, chronic diseases, disorders in the endocrine organs and the Central nervous system.
- Focal fibrosis of stroma and other forms of pathology involve the passage of hormone therapy. Proliferation of the connective tissue stimulates the estrogen. The activity of this process can block progesterone. Progesterone deficiency in the body is accompanied by swelling of the mammary glands and hypertrophy of the intralobular fibrous tissue, which leads to the formation of cysts. To normalize the balance prescribers with levels of progesterone (antiseptic) and tamoxifen (Zitaten), neutralizing the action of estrogen.
- For the local treatment of fibrosis of the mammary glands use progesteronethe gel Progestogel. It has analgesic effect and relieves swelling.
- Mastitis may develop on the background of increased blood levels of prolactin. In this case, prescribers, reducing the production of the hormone (Ronalyn, Bromocriptine).
- Extensive fibrosis of the breast treated using homeopathic medicine Mastodinon.
- In disorders of the thyroid gland prescribers containing iodine.
- Extreme swelling needs to take diuretics of plant origin.
- Not complete treatment of fibrosis without the use of vitamin-mineral complexes and sedatives.
With the ineffectiveness of conservative method of treatment, and at later stages of the development of fibrosis surgical intervention is required. For removal of the formed nodes and cysts are conducting sectoral resection or enucleation (husking benign tumors without removal of adjacent healthy tissue). In rare cases, the breast is subject to amputation.
To completely eliminate the risk of fibrosis impossible, but there are a number of recommendations which will reduce the risk of occurrence and recurrence of pathology.
- During the treatment of fibrosis need to be on a special diet to maintain normal bowel function. It provides restriction in the diet of animal fats and consuming lots of fiber, contained in vegetables, fruits and cereals.
- The use of hormonal drugs and contraception should take place under the supervision of a physician the medication dosage.
- After the birth of a child should be done breastfeeding until the milk is produced (at least 6 months).
Fibrosis is a protective reaction of the body in which connective tissue replaces the fat and glandular cells to isolate the source of inflammation or hemorrhage. At the initial stage of development of the pathology itself almost does not show. Formed as a result of hyperplasia of stromal tumors (nodes, cysts) are benign, but there are cases of degeneration into a malignant tumor. To prevent the development of serious complications should be regularly examined by a mammologist and gynecologist.