Inflammation of appendages in women: symptoms and treatment
Under the inflammation of the appendages in medicine implies a group of inflammatory diseases of an infectious nature, localized in the uterine tubes or the ovaries. The inflammatory process may be one — way. Depending on the severity of the disease, its symptoms manifest in different ways- pain in the region of inflammation, vaginal discharge, chills and fever, and other symptoms. What to do in such cases, why am I experiencing this unpleasant disease and how to treat inflammation of the appendages?
What is the inflammation of the appendages
Oophoritis is an infectious disease, which is characterized by the defeat of the fallopian tubes, or inflammation of the ovaries in women. The appendages of the uterus is physiologically very closely related to each other, so pathology often affects simultaneously the tube (in medical terminology this is called “salpingitis”) and the ovaries (called oophoritis or adnexitis). If the disease has affected and the uterus, the clinic is complemented by manifestations of endometritis complicating inflammation of appendages in women.
In the female body, the ovaries play some very important roles:
- they reproduced a viable egg that can be fertilized;
- they are responsible for the correct formation of female genitals both internal and external parts of them;
- here is the specific synthesis of female sex hormones: the ovaries are in the female endocrine system, and closely connected other endocrine glands of the female body.
Thus, the role of the ovaries is difficult to overestimate — in fact they provide given the nature of the woman the ability to conceive, nurture and bear children.
The ovaries synthesize estrogen and progesterone important female hormones. They also produce a small amount of androgens — male hormones. Basically androgens are synthesized in the adrenal glands and the ovaries produce them so that if a woman bears a boy, the fetus developed normally.
Fallopian tubes — tubular paired organ. The pipes originate from the uterus, or rather, from its upper corners, and end near the ovaries. Their main function is to hold the egg after fertilization from the ovaries to the uterus, where it will flow further pregnancy.
Mainly inflammatory processes in these organs start due to the multiplication of conditionally pathogenic microflora, as well as some other species of microorganisms, such as gonococci. In the ovaries, and tubes, the disease is developing in a similar scenario, and inflammation of the ovaries the symptoms are similar to those seen in the pathology of the tubes.
Beginning disease is characterized by acute inflammatory process, and, if you start treatment on time, or not start at all, it will soon become chronic.
The doctor can easily determine the inflammation of appendages in women. It is often sufficient simply to examine the patient’s complaints and to conduct regular gynecological examination to make a correct diagnosis. In the future, assigned laboratory tests, and additional diagnostics, but just need to better define the reasons for the development of the pathology and localization of the affected area.
The dangerous consequences of inflammation of the appendages:
- grows up to 10 times the risk of ectopic pregnancy;
- in low inflammation have adhesions in the pelvic organs (adhesions);
- resulting in the inflammation of detachable glues tubes of the uterus that leads to tubal infertility (the egg cannot pass through the pipe);
- permanent pathological process causes damage to the tissues of the ovaries themselves, disturbed production of hormones, which also leads to menstrual disorders and infertility;
- septic complications in acute period of infection may require surgery;
- there is a risk of transfer of infection to adjacent organs with the development of cystitis, pyelonephritis, urethritis;
- increases the likelihood of developing other gynaecological diseases (endometritis, cervicitis).
The success of treatment largely depends on how early the disease was found, although the qualifications of doctors, of course, also plays its very significant role: the attending physician must be experienced. But complete healing is possible only when therapy was initiated on time. Unfortunately, women often resort in the early stages of self-treatment and folk remedies, without resorting to a specialist, and thus starting the inflammatory process to a chronic form.
The reasons for the development of pathology
In healthy women the appendages do not contain any microflora, they are sterile. Inflammation develops when the fallopian tubes or ovaries fall pathogens. This may be either a descending path (from organs located above), or ascending (through the vagina and uterus). The main causes of inflammation:
- The gonococci. In gonorrhoea, the inflammation is more pronounced, and often causes the above-described complications.
- Other pathogenic microorganisms, such as chlamydia and others. Once in the body, they with high probability will cause a characteristic inflammation of the ovaries in women symptoms.
- Opportunistic organisms. Among them include E. coli, streptococci, staphylococci and other bacteria. This microflora is a permanent resident of the human body, but they are few, and a healthy immune system is able to efficiently inhibit their pathogenic activity. But in cases when the immunity is weakened for one reason or another, these microbes begin to proliferate, causing disease.
Most often, the inflammation is provoked not by single species of microorganisms, and the complex thereof, composed of different types of pathogens.
The disease does not develop by itself, its occurrence is due to favourable for pathogens factors:
- Physical damage to genital organs and the uterus inside. This can occur as a result of difficult childbirth, curettage of the uterine cavity, or during the abortion. The result of tissue damage infection enters and spreads, causing inflammation.
- Sexually transmitted diseases, among which stands out gonorrhea. Gonorrhea, being very aggressive micro-organisms can penetrate the epithelium of deep tissue. They provoked inflammation quickly penetrates into the uterus and then the ovaries and fallopian tubes.
- Endometritis (inflammation of uterus).
- The use of intrauterine contraceptive devices. There are situations when the inflammation of the tissues of the uterus is called the uterine spiral installation. Inflamed area then becomes infected, and the infection is higher for appendages. Of infectious agents can be recorded and in the process of installation.
- Hypothermia genitals. Once is enough to chill the lumbar region, to get chronic inflammation of appendages.
- Neurosis, stress, lack of sleep and fatigue.
- Exacerbation of chronic infections. Via the bloodstream the disease can penetrate into the appendages, even if the source of infection is relatively far (in the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, etc.). It is especially characteristic for tuberculosis, pyelonephritis, tonsillitis, otitis, and other diseases of infectious origin.
- Endocrine diseases and disorders of the hormonal system.
- Risk factors include menstruation and pregnancy.
It should be remembered that inflammation of the appendages in women may not develop a healthy immune system that suppresses the pathogenic activity. The symptoms manifest only in those patients whose immune system is for some reason too weak to resist pathogens.
Signs of inflammation and its symptoms
How the disease manifests in the patient, is determined by several factors:
- Form of pathological process. If the inflammation is acute, and the symptoms will be bright. In some cases, the acute form can become chronic, this will experience frequent exacerbations. This inflammation (outside of periods of exacerbation) may not have obvious clinical signs and continue for many years.
- Reason developed the disease. The clinical manifestation is affected by the causative agent of the inflammation, because each pathogen has its own characteristics. For example, inflammation of gonococcal origin the symptoms will be bright, and chlamydia, on the contrary, will provoke the removed form.
- Related diseases. If the woman has other disease of the uterus or its appendages, they are able to aggravate inflammation. Also affect the clinical picture of metabolic diseases, immune and hormonal disruptions. Background infection of non-gynecologic in nature weaken the immune system, creating a favorable situation for the penetration of pathogenic bacteria through the blood to the appendages.
Often inflammation of the ovaries in women occurs simultaneously with that in the pipes, as these bodies are close-by and closely related to each other. Signs of inflammation of the ovaries in General similar to the symptoms characteristic of inflammation of the appendages.
The disease develops in several stages:
- First, the pathogen penetrates the wall of the fallopian tube. In the introduction the microcirculation is disturbed, there is slight swelling. Microbes multiply, gradually moving towards the abdominal cavity and fallopian tube becomes thicker. At this stage the patient may start to feel aching pain. Along with the thickening of the tube narrows its lumen, until the complete adhesion of the walls that leads to the mentioned earlier infertility. This problem is faced by 20% of patients with inflammation of the appendages.
- The second stage is characterized by the proliferation of microbes on the peritoneum covering the fallopian tube tissue. The activity of the bacteria can lead to the formation of inflammatory discharge that collects in the pelvic area. Accumulate, this fluid becomes thick and viscous, as glue for the surrounding tissue and the resulting spikes. The patient thus feels a constant pain in the abdomen-pull in nature.
- During ovulation bacteria enter the ovary through the “wound” on its surface, formed on the site of the ruptured follicle. After that may form area of the ovarian suppuration — purulent abscess, a very serious complication of inflammation of the ovaries, which makes treatment difficult.
The main symptom of inflammation is pain, intense or relatively weak. For acute forms characterized by severe pain on the side where the infection (for example, inflammation of the left ovary cause pain on the left, right – in right inguinal region), over time it “spreads” throughout the abdominal cavity. These signs of inflammation of the appendages can lead to erroneous suspicion of other disorders (appendicitis, kidney disease, etc.). In most cases, along with pain in the acute form there is also chills and fever, high temperature.
If the disease has passed into the chronic form, the patient feels moderate pain in the area where inflammation occurs. Regularly causes nausea, bloating, discomfort in the region of the womb. Often they are associated with the formation of adhesions, and become stronger in periods of exacerbation.
Another common feature of all forms of inflammation — a characteristic vaginal discharge: yellow, green, bloody. Their scope and type depend on the cause of the infection and the stage of the inflammatory process. Also the patients with diseases of the appendages in most cases, experience disorders of menstruation cycles until the intermenstrual bleeding that is associated with hormonal disruptions and damage to the ovaries.
To answer the question of how to treat inflammation of the ovaries, tubes, you need to make a full clinical picture of the disease. Diagnosis is made on the complaints of patients on pain, chills, fever and fever. Often the first symptoms appear after suffering a cold or the background of inflammatory diseases of the vagina. The doctor carries out a survey of women and gynecological examination, and then decides how to relieve discomfort and how to treat inflammation of the appendages.
The abdominal wall in the region of the lesion during the examination will be painful, appendages can be enlarged and also painful. Are detected in the vagina grouptable selection, a large number of them is characteristic of acute disease.
To more accurately determine the location of the inflammation and its causes, the technician assigns a laboratory study of purulent discharge and blood. The level of leukocyte count and erythrocyte sedimentation rate indicates the stage of the disease — the higher these values, the result of inflammation. May also perform ultrasound, the results of which shows an increase of the inflamed ovary, and also visualized the inflammatory fluid.
Patients with acute inflammation of the sent to inpatient treatment, women with exacerbations and chronic process is also put in the hospital. Treatment of inflammation involves a variety of procedures:
- drug therapy;
- rehabilitation activities.
In the first stage of treatment of acute inflammation of conducting a course of antibiotics to suppress bacterial activity. It can start either at home or in hospital — the decision taken by the doctor, it depends on the severity of the disease. Chronic inflammation of such medicines do not cure with the exception of exacerbations.
To prescribe the right medicine, the physician first conducts analysis to identify the pathogen, and then selects the desired medication. Medication is prescribed either in the form of injections or prescribe pills. If the inflammation is severe, the patient can be administered through a drip.
Of the antibiotics most commonly prescribed:
- cephalosporins (Cephalexin, Cefazolin, Ceftriaxone and the like);
- penicillins (Ampicillin, Amoxiclav, etc.);
- tetracyclines (Doxycycline);
- medications spectrum antimycotic.
If you suspect trichomoniasis is assigned to Metronidazole and similar drugs.
It is essential that when inflammation of treatments were performed in strict accordance with the recommendations of the expert. If you take them incorrectly, or stop taking too soon, the illness will not be defeated, but only go to the time in latent form, and then again worsen.
In combination with antibacterial appointed painkillers:
- Nurofen and other drugs based on ibuprofen ;
- Diclofenac, Diklovit and other similar means.
As for the treatment of extremely important to good immunity, it is supported by immunomodulators. Shows the assignment of Cycloferon inside or Viferon rectally.
Patients taking antibiotics for inflammation of the appendages, are assigned in parallel, means for maintaining a normal intestinal microflora — to avoid dysbiosis, which can cause antibiotics for inflammation of the ovaries. To restore the damaged tissue infection are assigned to biogenic drugs (Was, aloe extract, etc.). To keep body give a complex of vitamins A, b, C, e are assigned to the Active vitamin and oxygen cocktails, berry fruit drinks (cranberries, rose hips, black currant) to stimulate immunity.
Good shows the effect of physiotherapy (warming, stimulates blood flow):
- the impact of UHF;
- laser treatment;
- sessions of UV treatment;
- treatment with ultrasound and other techniques used to combat inflammatory processes.
These techniques are prescribed to patients with chronic form.
In addition to medication use and techniques of local therapy. In the treatment of appendages apply antiseptic, such as chlorhexidine, and implement local effects of medications, such as vaginal suppositories inflammation of the appendages with anti-inflammatory, ointment, douche. Candles are well relieve pain, fight fever and local inflammation. Good effect to show the candles in inflammation of the appendages with Woltarena and Indomethacin, also have proven to candle Longidasa and Movalis. Use these candles and from inflammation of the ovaries, and pathological conditions of the tubes. But we must remember that local treatment is applied only in combination with other measures as support.
Surgical treatment is shown at absence of effect from conservative therapy and the deterioration of women. In the case of complications is oophorectomy – removal of ovary one or both sides. Often a simultaneous removal of the fallopian tubes and the affected pathological process of the uterus.
Inflammation of the appendages is a dangerous disease that can lead to serious and irreparable consequences for the female body, if you do not start timely treatment. That is why it is extremely important not to self-medicate, and do not delay to consult a doctor when the first symptoms — after all, the sooner this happens the faster the technician can determine the cause of the disease and prescribe adequate therapy.
Prevention of oophoritis and its complications include:
- Observance of rules of personal hygiene.
- Rejection from casual sex and use of barrier contraception.
- Timely treatment of vaginitis, cervicitis and other diseases of female genital sphere.
Signs of inflammation of the appendages in women can be similar to symptoms of other diseases, so careful diagnosis by a specialist. If the time to detect the inflammation of appendages in women, treatment with a high probability to be successful. The prognosis of delayed treatment of inflammation is extremely poor.