Is it possible to get pregnant without menstruation
The majority of women believes that the regularity of menstruation is a key characteristic of the normal functioning of the reproductive system in women. However, often there are situations when conception does not occur at a stable steady monthly cycle. Why is this happening and is it possible to get pregnant without a period?
The conditions necessary for conception
Every month a woman’s body prepares for fertilization and further child bearing. Let’s consider, what changes occur in the reproductive organs during the menstrual cycle of a standard duration (28 days).
|Period||The days of the cycle||The changes|
|I (follicular) phase||1 – 14||The phase begins with menstruation during which the egg fertilized in the previous cycle, goes along with peeling endometrium.
Under the action of estrogen in the ovaries is ripening a new egg, thickens the endometrium.
|Ovulation||14 – 16||Estrogen level reaches a peak that promotes the production of luteinizing hormone (LH).
There is a rupture of Mature follicle and the egg leaves the ovary.
The corpus luteum (ruptured follicle) actively synthesizes progesterone.
Only in this period of possible fertilization.
|II (luteal) phase||14 – 28||Development of LH in large quantities promotes the synthesis of progesterone, under which the endometrium becomes spongy, which is necessary for successful implantation of a fertilized egg.
If fertilization has not occurred, the progesterone level falls, causing the blood vessels in the endometrium constrict, and he rejected during menstruation. The cycle repeats again.
If menstruation cycle is regular and ovulation occurs in the middle, as confirmed by special tests and basal temperature, from unwanted pregnancy you should use protection on days when the probability of conception is high (8-16 day). It should take into account the fact that sperm live in the genital tract of women up to 7 days. Possible failure of the menstrual cycle can lead to the movement of the time of ovulation.
Many people mistakenly believe that the fact that the onset of menstruation is the main symptom of the normal functioning of the reproductive system in women. However, the conception of the key role played by ovulation. Therefore, in some cases pregnancy occurs without preceding menstruation.
The regularity of the menstrual cycle and the presence of ovulatory phase depend on many factors: the endocrine system, exposure to stress, disease, nutrition etc.
If there is no menstruation for 6 months, then intensive therapy is rarely done. Otherwise, when the delay exceeds six months, the woman is diagnosed with amenorrhea.
Classification of amenorrhea:
|Type of amenorrhea||Subspecies||Feature|
|Natural||—||Appears before puberty, during pregnancy and lactation, menopause.|
|Pathological||Primary||There are no signs of puberty and menstruating girls over the age of 16.|
|Secondary||A long delay at the previously established cycle.
May occur in diseases of the genital organs and complications after surgical procedures (abortions, removal of ovaries, etc.).
|True||Physiological||No menstruation and ovulation, so pregnancy is impossible. Natural, absence of menstruation is a manifestation of the true physiological amenorrhea.|
|Pathological||Appears when a malfunction of the endocrine system, pituitary, hypothalamus, gynecological diseases, excessive or insufficient weight.|
|About||—||Occurs in congenital abnormalities or absence of reproductive organs.|
Medicine known cases of sudden onset of pregnancy in women with natural amenorrhea. In this form of pathology fertilization of the egg occurs before the onset of menstruation. Consider this situation in detail.
Pregnant girls before the first menstruation
First period, the girl come after the ripe egg. Normally, this process takes place in the age 11 – 16 years. However, there are cases of early puberty (8-9 years) and the lag in sexual development (17-19 years).
If a girl at the time of the first ovulation is sexually active, then conception can occur before the first menstruation.
Pregnancy in the postpartum and lactation periods
After childbirth a woman’s body for a long time restores hormonal balance, mucous membranes and tissues of the reproductive organs. As a rule, menstruation cycle returning to normal only after the cessation of breastfeeding. What is the reason?
Breastfeeding (lactation) a woman’s body produces prolactin, block the action of estrogen required for the growth of the endometrium and oocyte maturation. What often happens in feeding, the greater the number synthesized this hormone. In the result of suppressed ovulation, and fertilization becomes impossible.
As a child gets older, attachment to the breast occur rarely introduced solid foods that reduce milk production and prolactin, respectively. The estrogen level rises, which triggers the process of oocyte maturation.
Ovulation precedes the beginning of the month, so unprotected intercourse during this period can lead to fertilization. A young mother may not notice the changes until the first of perturbations of the fetus, as the menstrual cycle has not returned to normal after childbirth and will not start over again in pregnancy.
If a woman wants to get pregnant so quickly after giving birth or that it is contraindicated (e.g. after a caesarean section), then care should be taken to select appropriate means of contraception.
Pregnancy in menopause
Getting pregnant during menopause — it is often the case.
With the demise of the reproductive function in a woman’s body is undergoing serious hormonal changes. After a long absence of menstruation may suddenly occur ovulation and unprotected sexual intercourse during this period will lead to fertilization.
When possible pregnancy without menstruation
Fertilization can occur without a menstrual period in the following cases:
- Unstable menstrual cycle in which ovulation occurs on any given day. While glitches can be regular (e.g., hormonal imbalance) or short-term, resulting from the action of a particular factor.
- Hormonal medications.
- The establishment menstrualnogo cycle in girls (the first year after menarche).
- Violation of the rules of taking combined hormonal contraceptives.
- Diseases of the endocrine system, organs of the pelvis.
- Stressful situation.
- When an unbalanced diet and excess weight.
Some women manage to get pregnant in the absence of menstruation. Necessary for conception ovulation before the onset of menstruation. Unexpected fertilization can occur under natural amenorrhea (before puberty, after childbirth and lactation, menopause), any violations of the menstrual cycle, diseases of the reproductive organs etc. In these cases, to avoid unwanted pregnancies, care should be taken about the appropriate means of contraception.