Levonorgestrel what is the hormone and how it affects the body
With the development of medicine and the pharmaceutical industry range of hormonal drugs is being increasingly enhanced, and modern tools operate more smoothly on the body than their successors. Modern hormonal preparations can be made using extracts of natural hormones or with the use of their synthetic analogues or phytohormones extracted from plants. One of such hormones produced by the synthesis is levonorgestrel — a synthetic analogue of a progestogen.
Preparations containing levonorgestrel, have contraceptive action. They inhibit ovulation and make conception impossible. The mechanism of action of this hormone, its benefits, harms and possible side effects described in this article.
Levonorgestrel is the most popular and well-known hormone used in contraceptives (including emergency). Drugs based on this substance are released in the form of tablets, capsules for subcutaneous injection, pills or intrauterine systems.
The action of levonorgestrel is progestogenic and anti-estrogenic activity, thereby inhibits the process of ovulation, and pregnancy does not occur. Drugs with levonorgestrel make cervical mucus more viscous, which hampers the penetration of sperm into the uterus. In addition, they influence the growth of the endometrium, slowing it down, so even if fertilization happens, it will not be able to gain a foothold in the uterus due to the small thickness of the inner mucosa. Regular intake of levonorgestrel slows down the production of luteinizing and follicle stimulating hormones, lowers the function of the corpus luteum.
The dosage of the hormone in the different drugs for emergency contraception is used the dose to 0.75 mg, for daily use in the composition of oral contraceptives levonorgestrel 0.03 mg, and the use of hormonal intrauterine spiral every day in the organism enters 20 g of the substance.
The use of contraceptives with levonorgestrel
When calculating the dose for the purpose of one of the types of drugs should take into account that overweight patients may reduce the contraceptive effect.
- Drugs for emergency contraception should be taken no later than 72 hours after unprotected contact. If after taking the drug began uterine bleeding, you should immediately consult a doctor. At a delay of menstruation must pass appropriate tests to exclude the likelihood of pregnancy. Application of preparations of emergency contraception with levonorgestrel for girls under the age of 16 is possible only in exceptional cases and after consultation with the doctor.
- Products for daily contraception contain levonorgestrel in smaller amounts and are taken inside orally daily or interval (i.e. after 21 days of use on a seven-day break). The appointment time does not matter. Importantly, in between there was a break exactly 24 hours.
- Hormonal intrauterine system is a T-shaped structure with integrated container of hormone. Before installation of this system must undergo a complete gynecological examination to calculate the required dosage and to avoid possible negative consequences. Intrauterine system is installed for a period of five years, during which you should regularly visit doctor for health check device.
The following table presents the most common drugs with levonorgestrel, their dosage and method of intake.
|Name drugs||The form of the drug||The active ingredient||Dosage form||Method of application and dosage|
|Gravistat, Microlut||Contraceptive||Levonorgestrel||Pills||One drops, in accordance with the day of the week continuously.|
|Gravistat-125, Microgynon, Minisiston, Triziston, Miranova, Ovidon, Rigevidon, Triquilar, Anteovin, Trinordiol, Three regolith||Contraceptive||Ethinyl Estradiol, Levonorgestrel||Pills or tablets||Interval reception|
|Klimonorm||Protivoklimaktericescoe tool||Estradiol, Levonorgestrel||Pills||Interval reception|
|Levonova, Mirena||Contraceptive||Levonorgestrel||Intrauterine therapeutic system||Intrauterine administered, valid for 5 years|
|Norplant||Contraceptive||Levonorgestrel||Capsules for implantation under the skin||6 capsules implanted under the skin surgically, is valid for 5 years|
|Postinor, Escapel||Emergency contraceptive||Levonorgestrel||pills||Taken orally one tablet within 72 hours after unprotected sex, after 12 hours you should take the second pill|
On the basis of the actions exerted on the body taking drugs with levonorgestrel, the main indication for its use is prevention of unwanted pregnancy. But in addition, contraceptives with this hormone can be administered as a remedy in idiopathic menorrhagia. This disease is characterized by too profuse and prolonged menstruation (above normal), in which there is excessive blood loss, which may develop anemia or other iron-deficient States.
Levonorgestrel in this case inhibits the growth of the endometrium, which reduces menstrual flow. In this disease or is suspected, it should be borne in mind that self-medication can lead to irreversible harm to health, therefore, all appointments should be done only by a doctor after examination and review the necessary tests. The whole treatment process is also carried out under the supervision of a specialist.
Any hormonal drugs require caution in the appointment and reception. Before recommending certain hormones, the doctor must consider the constraints and the absolute contraindications for a particular patient. The patient, in turn, must inform the physician about their disease, even if they seem unrelated to the medication.
- hypersensitivity to the drug;
- thrombosis, and the predisposition to them (the drug increases the risk of developing such diseases);
- disease of the coronary arteries;
- diseases of the liver and biliary tract (contraindicated the reception inside);
- breastfeeding, as part of the drug gets into the breast milk;
- diseases of the pelvic organs and infections of the lower urinary tract (intrauterine system);
- postpartum endometritis;
- septic abortion (administration of drugs with levonorgestrel may be recommended not earlier than 3 months after him and after consultation with the doctor);
- cervical dysplasia or malignancy of the uterus, including congenital or acquired abnormalities;
- progestagens.obesity tumors and fibroids distorting the uterus;
- increased susceptibility to infections.
Restrictions for receiving levonorgestrel
Limitations in the administration of drugs with levonorgestrel, mainly relate to the intrauterine system. If, after installation, will be noticed the following negative status, it is necessary to consider the question of the removal device.
- Severe headache, including migraine with partial or complete loss of vision.
- Suspected cerebral ischemia.
- Circulatory disorders, up to a stroke or heart attack.
Acceptance of any medical product may be accompanied by some side effects. In the case of hormonal drugs, the likelihood of these effects increases as the body responds to the intake of hormone from the outside. A thorough and competent study of the necessary tests before taking such drugs can minimize the side effects, but if still discomfort after taking this means too strong and lasts a long time, you should change your medicine to another.
Side effects from taking drugs with levonorgestrel
- From the nervous system you may experience some nervousness, mood swings, tendency to depression.
- May occur intolerance of contact lenses.
- Possible frequent headaches.
- The emergence of disorders of the digestive system as nausea, flatulence, diarrhoea or abdominal pain.
- Part of the reproductive system may be a change in the amount of menstrual bleeding, both in large and smaller side. May experience spotting during the intermenstrual period or uterine bleeding. Swelling and soreness in the breast can also become the effects of hormonal pills. In addition not rarely inflammatory diseases of the pelvic organs, vaginal candidiasis, increased risk of cancer of the breast.
- Allergic rashes on the skin eczema, urticaria, acne, accompanied by itching.
- The procedure for establishing or removing the intrauterine system can be accompanied by pain, bleeding, fainting, dizziness.
All side effects can be amplified when an overdose of the drug, therefore, should strictly abide by regimen and number of tablets. In the case of intrauterine system cases of overdose can not be, if there is no additional source of levonorgestrel.
Summarizing all the above, levonorgestrel we can say that it is a contraceptive agent that is responsible for the growth of the endometrium, applied separately and in combined preparations. His self-administration, as well as other hormonal medications and is absolutely contraindicated and could be appointed only by a doctor after the necessary tests.