Metroendometritis – what is it?
Metroendometritis, a common disease in gynecologic practice. He affects all women regardless of age. It is presented in the form of inflammation of the mucous membrane and muscular layer of the uterine cavity, developing as a result of exposure triggering factors: infections, injury and hormonal imbalance. Detailed information about the growing metroendometritis what it is, can give the gynecologist after a gynecological examination and a complex diagnostic activities.
The etiology of the disease
Metroendometritis considered as an independent disease, developing an inflammatory process in the result of infection with pathogenic or conditionally pathogenic flora, when the body is unable to fight back due to failure of the immune system. Infection of pathogenic microorganisms is not the only cause of the disease. In some cases this is preceded by hormonal changes. Imbalance Gomonov becomes the trigger for the emergence of conditions favourable to the development of the pathological process in the uterus.
In addition to immune status, the uterine cavity protects physiological barriers. Due to the cyclical rejection of the inner layer of the uterus its mucosa is constantly renewed, which prevents the penetration of pathogenic microorganisms. Prevents the penetration of infection into the uterus and the mucus produced by glands of the cervical canal. It is so dense that microbes are difficult to penetrate into the upstream region. The natural protective functions of the organism is sufficient to prevent infection and development of inflammatory process. However, a sufficient immune status observed in the absence of a weak link – damage in the inner layers of the organ.
To diagnose the disease a doctor during a bimanual studies after the submission of complaints by the patient. A set of additional laboratory and instrumental methods of investigation of the body and, in particular, the reproductive system will allow maximum confidence to assume the form of the disease and the reasons that contribute to its appearance. During the diagnostic study of the uterus see structural changes in its layers in the form of seals, proliferation of the epithelium, hyperemia of the muscular layer, discharge a Muco-purulent character.
There are 3 stages of the disease:
- In the acute stage. It is characterized by an acute onset of inflammation in the form of increased body temperature to febrile figures (38-40 degrees), pain of varying intensity in the lower abdomen, unnatural discharge with purulent content and odor. Often there are signs of General intoxication in the form of nausea, vomiting, disturbances of consciousness.
- Subacute stage. It is characterized by an intermediate state when the acute inflammation subsides, but not completely eliminated. Erased symptoms of the disease contributes to self-healing and the transition of the disease into a chronic form.
- Chronic stage. Asymptomatic or characterized by vague pains in the lower abdomen and the projection of the sacrum. If metroendometritis not timely diagnosed and completely treated, residual effects of inflammation provoke relapses of the disease. Treatment in this case differs slightly from the standard scheme. Chronic inflammation is much more difficult to eliminate. Therefore, it is important to diagnose metroendometritis in the early stages of development.
The reasons contributing to the development of metroendometritis
The infectious nature of the origin of metroendometritis contributes to its occurrence on the affected areas of the uterus.
Metroendometritis provides for the following causes:
- Infectious diseases of the vagina and cervical canal. Analysis results of bacteriological examination of vaginal smear indicate the type of pathogen. Trichomonas, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, gonococcus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella – most common bacteria that cause metroendometritis.
- Casual sex increase the risk of sexually transmitted diseases, which provoke the development of metroendometritis. Protected intercourse is a sine qua non for women leading an active sexual life with different partners.
- Acute and chronic diseases of ENT-organs. Not fully treated the disease creates an infection that the blood spreads throughout the body, including the reproductive organs. Many women do not give this phenomenon enough attention due to lack of awareness.
- Surgical intervention in the reproductive organs. The mechanical effect on the inner layers of the uterus by abortion or diagnostic curettage increases the risk of complications, in particular, metroendometritis. Extensive wound surface with the damaged blood vessels reduces local immunity and creates favorable conditions for development of pathogenic flora. The collection of material for histological examination, fine needle aspiration and sensing also contribute to the development of metroendometritis.
- The absence of rules of asepsis when performing intracavitary manipulations causing infection. Anatomical structure of the uterus contribute to the rapid spread of infection beyond and cause inflammation in neighboring organs.
- severe pain in the lower abdomen, in the lumbar region, radiating to the rectum;
- uterine tenderness on palpation of her;
- purulent discharge from the vagina;
- violation of the General condition with symptoms of intoxication.
Instrumental examination revealed:
- redness, swelling, compaction and loosening of the inner layer;
- the presence of severe vascular network in the mucosa;
- foci of tissue necrosis with purulent content;
- pathological vaginal discharge mixed with blood and pus;
- high leukocyte count and erythrocyte sedimentation rate in the clinical analysis of blood;
Since the first appearance of characteristic symptoms after a breach of the mucous membrane of the uterus, the woman is in urgent need of hospitalization in the gynecological ward. Self-medication in this case is unacceptable.
Despite the similarity of these signs with other gynecological diseases, the basis for diagnosis is the presence of structural damage in the layers of the uterus.
Treatment and prevention
Metroendometritis treatment is carried out after the previous set of diagnostic measures using laboratory and instrumental methods of examination. The focus is aimed at identifying the causative agent. Based on the results of the tests a gynecologist appoints further therapy, correcting it throughout the course of treatment.
Standard treatment regimen of metroendometritis provides the following procedures:
- Antibacterial therapy. The results of cultures indicate the drug of choice. In most cases, use broad-spectrum antibiotics before the result of the analysis: the penicillins or cephalosporins. The control efficacy of antibacterial agents is carried out throughout the course of treatment. In the absence of positive dynamics of the doctor adjusts the dosage regimen of medication or replace with another drug (possibly more). With extensive inflammation Antibacterials are administered directly into the uterine body for maximum effect.
- Intrauterine lavage is presented in the form of drip irrigation of the uterine cavity with antiseptic and antibacterial solutions. It is carried out with the aim of complete removal of the purulent contents or blood clots, preventing the removal of necrotic elements and purposes of asepsis. This procedure is often preceded by a curettage, vacuum aspiration or curettage.
- menstrual disorders (prolonged period, change of character of discharge);
- the transition of the disease into a chronic form with subsequent recurrence;
- the emergence of intermenstrual bleeding;
- adhesions in small pelvis organs;
- the formation of polyps and cysts narodowych;
- a salpingo-oophoritis;
- peritonitis (pelvioperitonit);
- ectopic pregnancy;
With the aim of preventing the occurrence of metroendometritis or of its transition in the chronic form must adhere to the following guidelines:
- prompt treatment of systemic diseases;
- treatment and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases;
- the lack of casual sex
- full hygiene of genitals;
- the lack of abortion;
- regular visits to the gynecologist;
- adequate and balanced diet;
- a healthy lifestyle and no bad habits;
- rational use of hormonal contraceptives.
Non-traditional methods of treatment involve the use of herbal infusions of medicinal plants with natural antiseptic, anti-inflammatory and regenerative properties. They are used for ingestion and for douches:
- Tincture of calendula has antiseptic and regenerative properties. It is added to water for vaginal douching (1 tsp of tincture 0.5 liters of boiled water). Tincture can be purchased at the pharmacy or make your own. This will need to insist 1 tablespoon of dry flowers of marigold in 100 ml of rubbing alcohol during the week. Douching to carry out morning and evening for 2 weeks.
- Natural antibacterial properties of Hypericum perforatum. A decoction prepared from this plant (2 tbsp. spoons of raw materials to 0.5 liters of water) take three times a day for 3 tablespoons and used for douching.
- Such characteristics have oak bark. The decoction is prepared the same way.
- Hemostatic and anti-inflammatory properties has plantain. 1 tablespoon dry raw material brewed in 250 ml of water. The broth, infused for 40 minutes, take 1 – 2 tbsp.spoon 3 times a day.
- Berries reduce the amount of menstrual flow. They can be taken fresh or cooked berry juice. Take 3 times a day instead of tea. A similar effect has strawberry leaves and nettle. 1 tablespoon dry raw material, brewed in a glass of boiling water and insist 40 minutes. Take half a Cup morning and evening for 2 weeks.
- For douching, you can use decoctions of plants such as chamomile, upland uterus, yarrow, walnut leaves, willow bark, celandine. 1 tablespoon of raw brew in 0.5 liters of water, boil and infused for 1 hour. You can use fitokompozitsii of these plants. Douching must be carried out within 2 – 3 weeks.
Any decision agreed with the doctor.
Timely diagnosis of the disease, the competent approach and adequate treatment contribute to the rapid elimination of the pathological process and preventing its transition in the chronic form. The lack of treatment threatens not only the complete loss of reproductive function, but also poses a real threat to life.