Oral contraceptives: types of modern means of the latest generation
The present level of development of medicine and the pharmaceutical industry offers many ways to protect against unwanted pregnancies, among which every woman can choose a method that is suitable for her. However, this does not reduce the number of questions that arises when choosing a tools, while the more drugs offers a pharmacy, the more there is questions about how and what to choose methods of protection against untimely conception.
The largest group of these are oral contraceptives (OC), providing a high level of protection and have minimal side effects when properly of their selection and appointment.
The first issue of concern to every woman when choosing a contraceptive is how to find the right drug that it does not impair the physical and psychological health status, had a high level of protection and least side effects. Therefore, you should start with the fact that the selection of oral contraceptives should be done by a qualified doctor because only a qualified specialist can tell you about how to operate oral contraceptives and to help in the choice of drug depending on your health and analyses, age and phenotype.
If you do decide to engage in self-selection of birth control pills, you should first analyze your appearance to determine what phenotype you are, then to study the types of oral contraceptives and their use.
Height and weight, condition of hair and skin, menstrual cycles and chronic diseases share of all women in phenotypes, with a predominance of estrogen, balanced type and prevalence of progestogen.
- The phenotype with a predominance of estrogen. This phenotype is characterized by medium tall, good condition of skin and hair, abundant and prolonged menstruation. Such women are the best contraception Rigevidon, Milvane, Triziston.
- Balanced phenotype. This phenotype is characterized by the average growth-developed mammary glands, normal skin and hair, menstrual cycle lasting 4 – 5 days. These women fit Marvelon, Silest, Microgynon, Femoden.
- The phenotype with prevalence of progestogen. This phenotype is characterized by high growth, masculine body type, hirsutism (excessive hairiness), underdeveloped mammary glands, oily skin and hair, scanty menstruation, but accompanied by depression premenstrual (PMS) and pain in the lower back and abdomen. In this case, suitable formulations having antiandrogens – Janine, Midian, yasmin, Jess, Diane-35.
To deal with the classification of oral contraceptives, you need to start with their mechanism of action, because depending on this, all contraceptive pills are divided into two groups – the oral contraceptives of the combined type (COC) and the minipill.
The principle of action of combined oral contraceptives is to block the ovulation by inhibiting the production of FSH and LH in the pituitary gland. In addition, thickens mucus in the cervix, which prevents the penetration of sperm inside, and especially for the purposeful changes of the endometrium so that the embryo attaching to the uterine wall becomes almost impossible.
Progestin oral medications, or mini-pill is a contraceptive, having a primarily local effect – they thicken the mucus in cervix and change the structure of the endometrium. Blokirovka ovulation is weak. These drugs do not contain estrogen, so were most commonly prescribed during lactation or with their individual intolerances and contraindications.
Combined contraceptives (COCS) consist of two types of hormones – derivatives of the estrogen and of progestogen, in this case depending on the change of dosage during the cycle can be divided into: mono-, two — and three-phase, and depending on the number of active components for micro-, low-, medium — and high-dose, highly.
Monophasic oral contraceptive pills have the same dosage of hormones throughout the cycle, and in two-phase and three-phase pill the level of hormones varies with the cycle period. That is, three-phase contraceptives are the most adapted to the menstrual cycle, but they are more complex, and the consequences of skipping pills is more significant.
- Micro-dose contraceptives. These drugs with minimal levels of ethinyl estradiol (20 mcg), but this does not affect their effectiveness, as they are mostly young nulliparous girls, leading regular sex life or for women with children, but who never took hormonal contraceptives.
- Low-dose oral contraceptives contain ethinyl estradiol (30 µg), together with such hormones as gestodene, desogestrel, norgestimate, and other. Basically, these oral contraceptives with antiandrogenic effect, so these drugs are also well suited to young parous women.
- Srednedushevye oral contraceptives contain ethinyl estradiol (35 micrograms) and levonorgestrel – they are prescribed to women that are difficult to recover after birth, as the drugs are mostly with antiandrogenic action, which is especially important for women after age 40.
- High-dose, highly oral drugs contain higher doses of hormones and currently used primarily for the treatment of diseases gormonozawisimah or assigned in the absence of effectiveness of medication with a lower dosage. Such funds are often used in severe PMS, with uterine fibroids and other diseases.
Range of popular oral contraceptives of different generations more clearly presented in the overview table, which shows the names of the most common drugs depending on the dosage of the active ingredient. Study the data presented in the table can be compared between oral contraceptives and choose the most appropriate tool for protection from unwanted pregnancy.
|Micro-dose||Soli, Jess, DIMIA, LOGEST, Mersilon, Lindinet, Minisiston, Novinet||—||Klajra|
|Low-dose||Jeanine, Yasmin, Midian, Lindinet-30, Femoden, Silest, Silhouette, Regulon, Belar, Tiara||Femoston, Binawan.||Tri-Merci|
|Srednedushevye||Chloe, Diane-35, Desmoulins||Andipal||—|
|High-dose, highly||Ovidon, Non-dark||Anteovin, Bifacil, Minardil, Seculorum, Sequela||Three regolith, Triziston, Trikvilar,|
Some modern contraceptives contain in their composition vitamins (including folic acid). This point allows you to use KOK for young women and safely plan pregnancy after discontinuation of the drug.
Picking up modern oral contraceptives, it is important not to forget about one essential part, a hormonal background, because this group of contraceptives contains in its composition a certain amount of hormones and the excess of any of them in the human body can lead to negative and irreversible consequences.
Before you make a decision to start hormonal birth control pills, you should carefully examine all the pros and cons of these drugs, but it is important to know that many side effects of oral contraceptives result from their incorrect selection or reception.
The advantages of taking oral contraceptives
- A high level of protection against unplanned conception and peace of mind without fear of getting pregnant.
- While taking contraceptives, menstrual cycle becomes regular, pain disappear and signs of PMS.
- When selecting contraceptives to normalize hormone levels, which leads to improved skin condition and hair, disappearance of acne. Positive cosmetic effect have funds antiandrogenam effect on the basis of drospirenone (Jess, yasmin, etc.).
- In the period of hormonal contraception ovaries “rest”, which promotes rapid return of fertility and the coming of a planned pregnancy. There is also a view that such a relaxation of the ovaries has a healing effect and reduces the risk of oncological diseases of the female reproductive system and stops the development of endometriosis, but medical evidence of this fact.
- Some of the COC are used as drugs in the treatment of gormonozawisimah gynecological diseases and some forms of infertility.
Cons of hormonal oral contraceptives
Before talking about the side effects of taking oral contraceptives, it should be noted that most of the tools of the last generation contain minimal doses of hormones with the same level of reliability, so if during the reception of such funds having discomfort, most of all, it speaks of the individual intolerance of the components of the selected drug and should not be immediately disappointed in all hormonal contraception, and to find a more suitable home.
- According to independent studies the acceptance of these funds nulliparous women increases the risk of cancer of the breast, liver and cervix.
- The body of each loop produces a certain amount of hormones and the flow of even a small number from outside could affect the balance between the ovaries and the rest of the body, which can lead to serious hormonal disorders later.
- With a long reception of oral contraceptives is derived from the body vitamin B6, which can lead to depression, irritability, insomnia.
- The administration of oral contraceptives to women after 40 years increases the risk of osteoporosis and glaucoma.
- Prolonged regular intake hormones for the female body after age 40, especially at elevated pressure, Smoking and genetic predisposition that causes the development of thrombosis, the occurrence of strokes.
- There are cases of problems with conceiving after long-term use of oral contraceptives, after their withdrawal, the body produces a reduced amount of hormones.
- Long reception OK can reduce libido and inhibit desire for intimate relationships.
- Intake of oral contraceptives increases the acidity of the vagina, which contributes to the development of the fungus Candida, which causes thrush, which can cause itching, burning and other unpleasant symptoms of this disease.
The mechanism of action of oral contraceptives of the latest generation allows you to take them without the risk of reducing libido and other unpleasant consequences, especially after 40 years.
Despite a huge leap of the pharmaceutical industry in the field of oral contraceptives and the emergence of the best tools in comparison with initial drugs, not all women can use these pills, so you should ensure you do not have some contraindications.
All contraindications are divided into absolute, when the use of this group of funds is strictly prohibited and a relative when some tools can be used, but with certain conditions.
- Thrombophlebitis, or the tendency to form blood clots.
- Breast cancer or other malignancy.
- Diseases of the liver.
- Hypertension, circulatory disorders, especially after the age of 40 years.
- Uterine bleeding of unknown etiology.
- Pregnancy or suspicion on it.
- Prolonged immobility due to the propensity to thrombosis.
- The varicose veins.
- Smoking more than two packs of cigarettes a day, especially after 35 years.
- Cholecystitis and hepatitis.
The list of side effects is quite large. Read all the possible consequences of taking the drug in the instructions (description of the drug). When any unusual symptoms while taking COC should consult a doctor.
During the first three months of a woman’s body adapts to the new drug. This period can go a rare spotting, marked nausea, vomiting, headaches. All the unpleasant sensations are for 2 – 3 months. If the condition does not improve, replace the product or completely abandon the use of hormonal methods.
Many women when choosing a COC trying to find the optimal product for a fairly inexpensive price. Unfortunately, the new efficient means, with minimal risk of side effects usually are expensive. If you need to replace the drug for a cheaper means is to contact your gynecologist. An experienced doctor will be able to assess the woman’s condition and to choose the best contraceptive for an attractive price.
From the foregoing it can be concluded that no matter how are certain oral contraceptives to decide how to choose the right drug that is needed by a qualified specialist, because only he can help with the choice of means, does not reduce the libido, with a minimum of undesirable consequences, and is available to tell how valid the recommended tool.
In addition, it should be noted that there is no good or bad oral contraceptives – all are equally good and effective, but not every drug is suitable to any woman, so do not be surprised if the new drug, bought on the advice of a friend or a pharmacist, you will have nausea, dizziness or other unpleasant feelings – this means that this oral contraceptive is not suitable for you and you should opt for some other means. So do not spare your time for regular doctor visits – your body will be so grateful for such attention.
If oral contraceptives? Like other hormonal agents, KOK have their pros and cons, and require a special approach to application and purpose. The potential benefits of contraceptive often outweighs the potential harm. The women taking COC should follow all doctor’s recommendations and the rules of the drug, time to pass the necessary examinations and pay attention to their health. In this case, the risk of adverse side effects is minimized. Not superfluous to read reviews of to the agent to verify its effectiveness and security. If the COC is strictly not suitable, you should use non-hormonal means to protect against unwanted pregnancy.
Recently, scientists pay special attention to the development of a male hormonal contraceptives. Perhaps in the near future women will no longer have to drink hormones, giving the prerogative of the strong half of humanity.