Oral contraceptives: types, side effects
Oral contraceptives recognized as the most effective way to prevent unwanted pregnancy. The mechanism of their action is based on inhibition of secretion of gonadotropins progestins, increase the viscosity of the mucus of the cervical canal, the structural changes of the endometrium and acidic environment of the vagina under the influence of estrogen.
Clinical effect birth control pills depends on the number of members of the hormones progestogen and estrogen. Modern oral contraceptives contain fewer side effects compared to drugs 1 and 2 generation. This is due to the introduction into their structure of new analogues of progesterone and a lower dose of estrogen.
The principle of action of contraceptives
The mechanism of action of contraceptives based on the number of active hormones within them:
- Progestin (progestin, progestogen) is a hormone produced by the corpus luteum of the ovaries and the adrenal cortex to suppress endometrial proliferation, blocking luteinizing and follicle stimulating hormones to ensure ovulation.
- Estrogens (estriol, estradiol, estrone) is responsible for the growth and structural changes in the endometrium, control menstrual cycle, promote growth of Lactobacillus in the vagina, increasing the acidity of the vaginal environment.
The selection of oral contraceptives must be performed by a doctor, gynecologist or endocrinologist. Only a specialist knows how to apply the hormones in a woman’s body, taking into account such factors as age, overall health, presence of systemic diseases, heredity, individual characteristics.
It is not necessary to impose the choice of contraceptive in pharmacist at the pharmacy. Even the most effective drugs of new generation can cause undesirable effects when used improperly.
Progestin (mini-pill) oral contraceptives containing the progestin meager dose, have minimal side effects. The principle of operation of such funds based on the change in the density of mucus in the cervical canal. The thick mucus prevents the movement of sperm. Structural changes of the endometrium under the action of estrogen reduces the contractile function of the fallopian tubes to prevent migration of the ovum. Inhibition of ovulation is provided by the action of progestogen and changes in hormonal levels women.
Oral progestin contraceptives are shown:
- women in the late reproductive age (after 35 years);
- women after 40 years due to age-related systemic diseases;
- in the presence of benign tumors (strictly on prescription);
- in the case of existing contraindications to the administration of estrogen.
Combined oral contraceptives – the most popular group. For women of different age (after 40 years) they are the most suitable. The combination contained therein hormones are selected so that the maximum corresponds to the natural hormonal background of female organism. Another important advantage is their reliability (up to 98%).
Lack of ovulation during the period of use of combined oral contraceptives provides rest to the ovaries and endometrium that is important in the presence of reproductive disease.
Latest oral contraceptives have minimal side effects, compared to their predecessors. High-dose, highly hormonal drugs today are prescribed only in the treatment of endocrine and oncological diseases. Despite the General availability of such medicines in the pharmacy network, their reception is carried out only under the supervision of a physician.
Side effects of oral contraceptives taken without the advice of an experienced professional, significantly increases the risk of complications, until the appearance of cancer. For advice you can go to any clinic or center for family planning.
Monophasic oral contraceptives of last generation in its effect not inferior to the two-phase or three-phase media. A distinctive feature is a standard daily dose of the hormones. Some gynecologists advise to stop the choice on two or three-phase contraceptives, as they are more “adjusted” to the natural cycle.
Preference to monophasic drugs give because of their easy application method (continuous 28-day supply, including 7 pills of placebo or 21-day receiving with 7-day break). This characteristic has significance when the fast pace of life and constant employment of women.
Change natural hormonal levels through the application of synthetic analogues are far from harmless circumstance. Unreasonable use of contraceptives is threatened by the emergence of undesirable consequences: a change in the menstrual cycle, blood clots, cancer, loss of reproductive function.
The risk group includes women with the following diseases:
- of the circulatory system (thromboembolism, cerebrovascular or coronary circulation, varicose disease, hemolytic anemia);
- cardiovascular (past heart attack or stroke, angina, congenital anomalies);
- the endocrine system (diabetes, hypothyroidism, hypertension, obesity);
- chronic renal or liver failure;
- menstrual disorders (amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea);
- the injury and surgery;
- bleeding unclear etiology;
- neurological and psychiatric diseases (migraine, epilepsy);
- oncological diseases in anamnesis (estrogen-dependent tumor, breast cancer, or genital organs);
- the presence of harmful habits (tobacco, alcohol).
What to stop a choice
How to choose an effective contraceptive with the least side effects decided by the doctor after a preliminary examination of the patient. And then explains how to operate oral contraceptives.
The complex of diagnostic measures includes the following procedures:
- inspection on the gynecological chair for the presence of infectious-inflammatory processes in the reproductive organs;
- exclusion the fact of pregnancy;
- the collection of data on transferred earlier diseases, and hereditary predisposition, a history of endocrine, neuropsychiatric diseases, Oncology;
- familiarization with previous hormonal therapy;
- a study of female phenotype.
Each phenotype shows certain women’s contraceptives that will be most effective.
For comparison, the table shows the names of the best drugs
|Type of female figure||Signs||Drugs indicated for use|
|Estrogen||Average height, well-developed Breasts, normal/dry skin, slim waist, feminine features and voice, long menstrual cycle (28 days or more)||Having a higher content of gestagen:
Rigevidon, Microgynon, Minisiston
|Progestinonly||Tall, thin build, small chest, diamond-shaped growth of pubic hair, low voice, short menstrual cycle (28 days)||With antiandrogenic action:
Klajra, Diane-35, Jess, Janine, Yarina
|Balanced||Average height, a feminine figure, a pleasant voice, average breast size, menstrual cycle duration of 28 days||Lindinet, Novinet, Three merci, Silest.
After 40 years, Micronor, Diane-35, Mersilon, Exluton, Femulen
Correctly chosen contraceptive will reduce the unpleasant symptoms of PMS, improve health, appearance, skin and nails, to maintain libido, to restore the psycho-emotional background, reduce the risk of cysts and benign tumors.
Well-chosen drug is well tolerated. If you start taking new means it’s been three months, and the woman did not observe menstrual discharge in mid-cycle, so it suited her.
Choosing a means of birth control effect, you need to understand that there are bad pills. Only need to choose the right, considering different options with your doctor.
The main types of oral contraceptives are popular among women:
|Monophasic||Two-phase||Three phase||Mini-pill (one-component progesterone)|
|Regulon, Janine, Rigevidon, Silhouette, Novinet, Femoden, Lindinet, LOGEST, Microgynon, Minisiston, yasmin, Jess, Non-dark||Equilar, Seculorum, Binawan, Anteovin||Three thanks, Three-regolith, Triziston, Trikvilar, Trinovum||Exluton, Bret, Continuing, Micronor, Microlut, Charozetta, Lachine|
Special attention should be given emergency contraceptive pills (Postinor, Plan b, Levonorgestrel, Ginepreto, Escape, Agest). Their use should be minimized due to specific toxicity. Indications for use are only for emergency cases:
- post-coital contraception, when violent acts of a sexual partner;
- pass contraception;
- the lack of effectiveness of local contraceptives.
Even one step emergency contraceptive actions can disrupt natural hormonal balance, the recovery which can take months and years to come.
Incorrectly selected drug violates the General condition of women, increases the risk of complications in the form of:
- severe headaches;
- pain and hyperemia of the mammary glands;
- swelling of calf muscles;
- nausea and vomiting;
- surges of arterial pressure;
- intermenstrual bleeding;
- pain in the chest area;
- allergic reactions;
- reduced sexual activity;
- the rapid increase of body weight;
- development of tumors, including malignant.
Contraception as prevention of unwanted pregnancies and prevention of abortion is important at any stage of life.
The dream of every woman is to give birth to the desired child in the desired time. Therefore, the issue of reproductive health is particularly relevant when choosing contraceptives.
Effective oral contraceptive that is assigned to an experienced specialist will ensure safe motherhood in the future.