Ovarian apoplexy: causes, symptoms, treatment, consequences
Ovarian apoplexy (rupture) is not very common in gynecologic practice. Less than 5% of women and girls suffering from this disease, but the possibility of a return of pathology is 45-70%. The disease affects girls and women 14-45 years. The age category of 20-35 years is at risk.
Causes of ovarian rupture
The manifestation of the disease many factors contribute. Apoplexy of the ovary can cause a cyst (or cysts), which pathologically affects the operation of its vessels. The cyst is functioning thanks to the continuous blood supply of this organ. When it does rupture, it leads to violation of integrity of tissues and blood vessels of the ovary.
Physiological processes also provoke a tear. Pathological changes of the vascular disruption of the corpus luteum, which is formed in the second half of the cycle. Because of this, inside yellow the body starts bleeding, blood vessels can not withstand the pressure, and rupture occurs.
Doctors have discovered that ovarian apoplexy often happens in the middle and at the end of the menstrual cycle, when the load on the blood vessels that body maximum.
Doctors identify the following main causes of apoplexy:
- inflammatory processes of the reproductive system;
- taking medications that thin the blood;
- impaired blood clotting;
- the problem with hormones;
- adhesions after surgery and others.
Gynecologists are also known causes of rupture, such as trauma to the abdomen, heavy lifting, rough sex, douching, riding on a horse and so on. Among other reasons for the occurrence of the disease is called pressure on the blood vessels of the tumor (cyst), release of the oocyte and follicle rupture, a misplaced uterus.
Some patients apoplexy occurs during sleep or at rest.
Main types of ovarian apoplexy
Gynecologists conventionally, there are three forms of ovarian apoplexy:
- pain (a woman experiences severe pain in the lower abdomen);
- symptoms (the main symptom is the effusion of blood in the abdominal cavity);
- mixed (indications of both forms).
The first and second forms of ovarian apoplexy never be diagnosed in its purest form, as when the tissue always hurts the stomach and is bleeding.
Depending on which ovary has been disease – left or right – there are two types: the apoplexy of the right ovary (left) and the apoplexy of the left ovary (left).
In practice doctors is more common apoplexy of the right ovary, due to the fact that the blood it goes to the aorta. Left ovary supplies blood renal artery where the blood flow is not as intense. Therefore, the apoplexy of the left ovary is accompanied by a slight hemorrhage, which complicates diagnosis.
For this pathology is typical the bleeding, so doctors tend to define the three degrees of severity:
- easy (with the loss of blood about 200 ml);
- medium (blood loss up to 500 ml);
- heavy (the amount of blood loss exceeds 500 ml).
The first symptoms of ovarian apoplexy
Symptoms of the disease depends on its type and severity. Girls and women should know the main symptoms of apoplexy of the ovary, as the disease can be fatal.
The gynecologist can not always diagnose pain apoplexy due to the lack of severe symptoms and heavy bleeding. This is because the rupture of the follicle of the cyst or of the corpus luteum is not always accompanied by severe hemorrhage. Abdominal pain indicate many diseases. The main symptom of damage to the tissues of the ovary is pain, sometimes with spasms in the lower abdomen. Soon joined by nausea and urge to vomit.
Anemic ovarian apoplexy of moderate and severe degree is characterized by the accession of such symptoms as severe internal bleeding, dizziness, weakness and fainting. Women have a very sore belly, often to the pain, join cramps. The patient seems that the pain experienced in the rectum, the sacrum, the leg and the genitals. Diagnosis of this type of disease is not difficult the doctors.
Because of significant blood loss in women are manifested additional symptoms: increased body temperature, reduced blood pressure, heart beats faster, the skin becomes pale and covered with cold sweat. Sometimes there may be slight bleeding.
The manifestation of one or more symptoms of the girl or woman must seek medical care with a gynecologist.
Specifics of treatment of ovarian rupture
To diagnose the apoplexy is very difficult. Therefore, the patient hospitalityat in a hospital, and there are several specialists conduct the inspection. Needling the abdomen helps to find out the exact diagnosis. If confirmed signs of gynecological diseases, the treatment can be conservative or operational.
Conservative treatment is used for pain type apoplexy, if the blood loss is about 150 ml., It is carried out solely under the supervision of experts. The doctor prescribes a course of therapy to stop internal bleeding, pain in the abdomen, as well as vitamins and rest.
But this method of treatment has proven to be ineffective, because every second patient can sometimes be a relapse. The risk of adhesions as a result of medical treatment is also very high. Why doctors do not recommend nulliparous girls and women this therapy. If in a few days the pain intensified and the bleeding, conservative treatment is stopped.
If the patient is planning to become a mother, the doctors insist on surgical treatment of apoplexy.
Doctors often practice surgery as an effective method for the treatment and prevention of relapse of the disease. Gynecologist appoints a laparoscopy or laparotomy. Operation is also shown in the anemic type of disease with symptoms of profuse internal bleeding. Only immediate surgery saves a life.
Gynecologist appoints the operation with the purpose of preservation of the uterus. Removal of the organ is only possible in severe cases. During surgery, the surgeon removes the cysts from the peritoneum pumps blood to avoid the appearance of adhesions. Women do not need to be afraid of the operation and impact as gynecologists have already gained experience in this field. Most patients can handle all the manipulations, and the risk of relapse is significantly reduced.
The main factors of life saving and reproductive health of women is an accurate diagnosis of ovarian apoplexy and immediate initiation of adequate treatment.
Treatment of ovarian rupture during pregnancy
Pregnancy is one of the most beautiful stages in a woman’s life. But sometimes diseases blight the lives of the expectant mother. Even during pregnancy can happen ovarian apoplexy. The appearance of pathology is possible in those cases if the female until fertilization the eggs have already been problems with the reproductive system.
During pregnancy the ovaries change location: they rise up. Therefore, when apoplexy localization of pain in pregnant women is slightly different. The disease is dangerous because bleeding in the abdominal cavity threatens the lives of not only mother but also the fetus. If you suspect an apoplexy of the ovary during pregnancy patient necessarily hospitalitynet.
Symptom of a pathology is also hemorrhage into the abdominal cavity and bleeding from the vagina.
Condition of the expectant mother may worsen with the appearance of nausea, vomiting, tachycardia and low blood pressure, sore stomach and waist, increased body temperature. The woman is an urgent need to go on inspection to the gynecologist.
When you break a pregnant main method of treatment is surgery. A sick body is sutured and get rid of fluid in the abdominal cavity. If ovarian apoplexy occurred due to the bursting of the cyst, we first treat the tumor and then sutured. All subsequent therapeutic range is aimed at relieving pain, recovering from surgery and maintaining a pregnancy.
Girls and women it is important to remember that any treatment can harm the baby. Therefore, diagnosis of diseases of the reproductive system should be carried out at the planning stage of pregnancy.
The effects of ovarian apoplexy
After conservative treatment or surgery, the doctor will prescribe the patient therapy to restore normal functioning of the organs of the pelvis. Rehabilitation also helps to avoid many of the consequences of the disease. The main ones doctors call:
- the formation of adhesions, minimizing the chances of getting pregnant;
- inflammation of the genital organs and abdomen;
- problems with the menstrual cycle and hormones;
- the recurrence of the disease;
Women who have the disease is accompanied by severe hemorrhage, surgery under General anesthesia. Therefore, physicians also prescribe medicines to restore and support the functions of the brain and Central nervous system.
Prevention of the disease
Preventive measures aimed at reducing the likelihood of re-rupture. Women gynecologists recommend avoiding factors that provoke apoplexy of the ovary, to undergo inspections every 6 months and time to go to the doctor for help.
With the aim of preventing disease and again restore the hormonal system to the patient is prescribed oral contraceptives.
Timely treatment of diseases of the uterus and its appendages promotes healthy functioning of the entire urinary-genital system of women.
Ovarian apoplexy is uncommon in obstetrics, but its consequences and complications can remain for a lifetime. Women at any age should treat their health. Adequate prevention is always better than cure.