Premenstrual syndrome: symptoms and treatment of PMS

Medicine since ancient times, studying the woman’s body. But even today there remain many unsolved puzzles, one of which is the condition before menstruation. In medical language this process is called premenstrual syndrome (PMS). According to statistics, it affects about eighty percent of women. Pay attention to the reaction of the body and recognize the symptoms of this condition is easy if you consider the fact that premenstrual syndrome occurs from the twenty first to the twenty-eighth day of the cycle (in a normal 28-day cycle), that is in its final week before the expected menstruation.

General information

PMS – what is it? Premenstrual syndrome (abbreviated PMS) is the period that occurs in the second half of the cycle, presumably in three to ten days before menstruation. Often this stage is characterized by disorders in the functioning of the vascular, nervous and endocrine systems.

Almost every woman is familiar with this condition as premenstrual period. The syndrome often appears in women with a thin body type and working in the intellectual sphere. Does not depend on age. ICP is observed in very young girls and older ladies, virgins and adult ladies. After the birth of their first child the signs of PMS are softened or disappear completely in 50% of women.


There were many studies, but the exact causes of premenstrual syndrome and failed to identify. Some of them include:

  • violation of water-salt process;
  • increased susceptibility to endogenous progesterone;
  • psychosomatic disorders;
  • hormonal disorders;
  • lack of vitamins and minerals in the body( especially a deficit of vitamin B6);
  • constant stress;
  • the presence of harmful habits in Smoking;
  • overweight;
  • the consequences of abortion, parturition complicated nature of surgical interventions.

The most common cause are variations that occur in the hormonal background.

The menstrual cycle involves a balance between three important hormones:

  1. Of estrogens. Ensure the growth and maturation of follicles. Responsible for the physical and mental state. Aimed at improving tone, creativity, speed of assimilation of information and the ability to learn.
  2. Progesterone. Responsible for the operation of the corpus luteum prepare the uterus for possible pregnancy. It has sedative properties, which can lead to the manifestation of depression in the second half of the cycle.
  3. Androgens. Responsible for libido, are aimed at improving energy and health.

In the latter half of the cycle there is a change in hormone levels. The estrogen level gradually rises, and the rate of progesterone dramatically falls down. As a result of this process the body may experience an inadequate response to what is happening, leading to a sharp change of behavior. It is believed that this condition is inherited. A constant level of progesterone in the second phase is one of the signs of pregnancy.

So as the days before menstruation are unstable in endocrine terms, the majority of patients begin psycho-vegetative and somatic disorders. In this case the main role is played not the level of hormones, and a sharp jump. This process leads to a change in behavior and emotions:

  • The raising of estrogen and decrease in progesterone leading to retard fluid, resulting in swelling, engorgement and pain in the mammary glands. To suffer cardiovascular system and Central nervous system, which appears irritability, aggressiveness and tearfulness.
  • Hypersecretion of prolactin. This condition also leads to a delay of fluids and sodium in the body.
  • Excess prostaglandins. Leads to disturbances in vascular and digestive systems. Also, women may get headaches type migraines.
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Symptoms of premenstrual syndrome

Any premenstrual syndrome is characterized by the manifestation of specific symptoms. Counted around a hundred and fifty. It is customary to distinguish several forms of premenstrual syndrome. These include:

  • neuropsychiatric;
  • cephalgic;
  • swollen;
  • krizova;
  • atypical.

Neuropsychiatric form is characterized by manifestation of symptoms of premenstrual syndrome:

  • emotional instability;
  • increased tearfulness;
  • irritability;
  • aggressiveness;
  • General weakness;
  • reduce the health;
  • violent mood swings;
  • fatigue;
  • dizziness;
  • insomnia;
  • apathy and boredom;
  • depression;
  • hallucinations;
  • sexual disorders;
  • the weakening of the memory;
  • causeless nervousness.

Cephalgic form is characterized by manifestation of symptoms such as:

  • pain in the head pulsating or migrenepodobna nature;
  • the occurrence of nausea and vomiting;
  • swelling of the eyelids;
  • diarrhea;
  • palpitations;
  • nervousness;
  • increased sensitivity to smells, sounds and tastes.

Menstrual syndrome in edematous form is characterized by symptoms such as:

  • fluid retention, which is manifested by swelling of the face and extremities;
  • weight gain;
  • excessive sweating;
  • unquenchable thirst;
  • reduced urinary output;
  • itching;
  • disorders in the digestive system;
  • constipation or diarrhea;
  • bloating;
  • flatulence.

Menstrual syndrome in kesovoj form is characterized by such features as:

  • tachycardia before menstruation;
  • increase in blood pressure;
  • panic attacks;
  • numbness and cold extremities;
  • the occurrence of pain in the heart;
  • pain and aches throughout the body.

Atypical symptoms before menstruation characterized by symptoms:

  • temperature rise;
  • the appearance of a constant sleepiness;
  • vomiting.

Stage premenstrual syndrome

In medicine it is accepted to allocate three basic stages in the development of premenstrual syndrome. These include:

  1. Compensated stage. Characterized by the manifestation of PMS symptoms in mild form. Once menstruation occurs, symptoms disappear. This state usually lasts no more than 3 days.
  2. Subcompensated step. Symptoms of premenstrual period is more pronounced, which affects the working ability of women. Each time the problem is compounded. Up to 5 days.
  3. Decompensated stage. Symptoms hard. While postmenstrual syndrome they can last for several days (up to weeks).

Most patients believe that the occurrence of premenstrual syndrome is a normal phenomenon. Some of them confuse PMS symptoms with pregnancy and other diseases. As a result, spend self-treatment or treated in the clinic for the experts.

Diagnosis of the disease

Once the diagnosis of premenstrual syndrome is difficult. The fact is that he has such symptomatology, which is found in many diseases. If a woman monitors her cycle and noticed that a few days before her menstruation began to be disturbed inappropriate behavior or poor health, you should consult a gynecologist.

To establish an accurate diagnosis the doctor needs to know complaints of the patient and to gather information about it. A preliminary diagnosis of “premenstrual syndrome” can be set on the basis of the following symptoms:

  • the presence of depressive or aggressive States;
  • emotional instability, irritability, tearfulness or mood swings;
  • bad mood, the feeling of longing or despair;
  • anxiety or fear;
  • the lowering of emotional tone and loss of interest in the surrounding world;
  • fatigue and weakness;
  • reduced attention and memory impairment;
  • change of appetite and taste preferences;
  • insomnia or excessive sleepiness;
  • breast tenderness and appearance of swelling;
  • the occurrence of head and muscle aches;
  • the constant tension.
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If a woman has observed at least two or three symptoms from the above, it is possible to speak with confidence about the presence of premenstrual syndrome.

But how to treat this pathology? Before you start the treatment of premenstrual syndrome, a doctor must assign the survey to understand the reason for what is happening. These include:

  • consultation with a neurologist;
  • advice of mammologist and an ultrasound examination of the breast;
  • radiography, computer tomography or magnetic;
  • conduct electroencephalography and assessment of brain vessels;
  • consultation of General practitioner and pressure measurement;
  • consulting endocrinologist and testing for hormones;
  • submission of urine samples of the General and Rehberg.

Decoding of all tests are performed by a doctor. Also doctor may recommend that women keep a special diary for three to six months. It is necessary to record the complaint and to trace the dynamics of treatment.

Difference PMS pregnancy

Often women confuse the symptoms of PMS pregnancy. Once conception occurred, a woman’s body increases the amount of progesterone in the blood. As a result, the patient had symptoms appear in the form:

  • fatigue;
  • swelling and painfulness of mammary glands;
  • nausea and vomiting;
  • change of appetite;
  • irritability and mood fluctuations.

It should be noted that during premenstrual syndrome all symptoms disappear with the arrival of menstruation. If women observed pregnancy, it is still all attached signs frequent urination. But often women learn about its position only when the delay occurs.

The best option to worst option is to wait for a month. If not, then you need to test, which is sold in any store.

Treatment of premenstrual syndrome

After the examination, the doctor prescribes the treatment of premenstrual syndrome. It must be done holistically, regardless of which disease is the patient. Treatment involves medication, which includes:

  • Means of psychotropic and sedative actions. Assigned to eliminate the mental and emotional symptoms that occur in many patients. Preparations are issued in tablets or capsules. These include:
    • drugs antianxiety actions in the form of Seduksen or Rudotel;
    • antidepressants in the form of Ceramide or Coax, with a treatment course lasts no less than two months;
    • the tranquilizers.
  • Means of hormonal action. Assigned for the settlement of leap hormones. For such purposes used drugs in the form:
      • progestins, which include cough medicine or antiseptic;
      • monophasic combined oral contraceptives in the form of Janine, LOGEST, Yasmin;
      • derivatives of androgens in the form of Danazol (assigned in those cases where the patient has severe pain in the glands);
      • dopamine agonists in the form Parlodel and Dostinex.
  • Diuretics. Are prescribed for relieve swelling. These include Spironolactone.
  • Treatment is symptomatic in nature. Is used as a complementary therapy to quickly eliminate the signs of PMS. These funds can be taken alone in case of confirmed diagnosis. These include:
    • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the form of Indomethacin or Diclofenac.
    • Antihistamines. Accepted for allergic reactions. These include Tavegil, Suprastin, Aerius.
    • Homeopathic remedies. The most popular are Remans and Mastodinon. These drugs are of vegetable origin and are not hormonal medications. The main advantage of these drugs is effect on the cause of the syndrome, the restoration of the imbalance in the hormones, reducing psychological symptoms.

A favorite tool of mammologists is a nonhormonal drug Mastodinon. It effectively cope with the edematous form of the disease, relieves symptoms and resolves breast pain. The result after the application comes rather quickly, but to leave the reception facilities is impossible. It is necessary to drink not less than three months.

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The second drug have the same action attribute, Remains. It is also recommended to take not less than three months. Funds are transferred perfectly, but have a number of contraindications (period, pregnancy and lactation).

It should be noted that premenstrual syndrome is closely associated with the menstrual cycle. Therefore, complete elimination of symptoms is impossible. In such situations, you can only alleviate the condition of the patient and transfer the disease in a mild form. The healing process lasts from three to six months. Frequent relapses that require repeated courses. In some cases, this therapy becomes a lifetime.

Frequently patients possess emotional and neurological disorders. Therefore, the process ended successfully, we need a positive attitude. To do this, the treating physician explains to the patient that she needs to diet, physical activity, abandon bad habits and relaxation.

Diet and lifestyle during treatment

To the recovery process was fast, you must adhere to several recommendations. These include:

  • Diet. Enough to reduce the salt content in foods and less use of caffeinated products. Also, the diet should include fish, legumes, rice, milk and milk products, dark chocolate, vegetable and fruit dishes.
  • Regular athletics. Physical exercise is able to increase the level of endorphins in the blood, making the mood of a woman improves. To hold such events is recommended two to three times a week.
  • Eliminate stressful situations. Do not think about the disease. Better get plenty of rest and sleep should be at least nine hours a day.
  • The constant sex. This process not only helps to cope with insomnia, but also to raise mood, improve immune function and fight stress.
  • The use of infusions of medicinal herbs in the form of:
    • Vitex. Aims to reduce feelings of heaviness and pain in the mammary glands.
    • Pervolia. Helps with headaches and swelling.
    • St. John’s wort. Antidepressant, normalizes libido and improves the health of patients.

As additional methods you can use traditional methods of treatment. To soothe you can take motherwort tincture or Valerian, warm tea with chamomile or mint.

Complications of premenstrual syndrome

If the patient ignores the symptoms, each time they will grow. This can exacerbate disease and cause:

  • anemia;
  • epilepsy;
  • migraine;
  • thyroid disease;
  • chronic fatigue syndrome;
  • Allergy symptoms;
  • inflammatory processes in the female genital organs.

With all the recommendations a woman will be able to cope with the problem. Not always possible to completely eliminate the disease but to reduce its impact. Do not run away from problems, it is better to consult a doctor for a complete examination and proper treatment.