Prevention of cervical cancer: causes, symptoms, types

Carcinoma of the cervix widespread. It affects women in the reproductive age and entered menopause. Cancer preliminary phase in which disease is treated successfully. Timely detection of cervical pathology to prevent further development of the cancer process.

Clinical manifestations detect before durakovich States. The abnormal cells spread through the lymph nodes, blood vessels or the bloodstream.

Causes


The following are causes and risk factors for the emergence of cervical cancer:

  • contagious: HPV
  • heredity (carcinoma of the passed generations);
  • lifestyle:
    • premature sexual activity (immature endothelium prone to trauma),
    • sexual life
    • tobacco use,
    • the rejection of condoms
    • the use of hormonal means of protection.

The types and phases of cancer

Distinguish the following types of cervical cancer: adenocarcinoma and carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma. The second type is more common. It develops by mutation of flat endothelial cells and occurs in hard, soft and neorogovevayuschy form.

There are five stages of cervical cancer:

  • Stage 0. Cancer cells located within the mucous layer. There are the following types of precancerous lesions:
    • cervical dysplasia,
    • leukoplakia of the cervix,
    • the anogenital warts.
  • Stage I. the Tumor is localized within the cervix.
  • Stage II. Pathological tumor has spread to pelvic organs. Cancer process has progressed to the uterus, and the vagina.
  • Stage III. Involvement of the walls of the pelvis, impaired renal function.
  • Stage IV. The development of distant metastases.

At the last stage, the lesion of the internal organs. Pain in the sacrum, lower back, rectum. Metastasis to the lungs is characterized by coughing up blood, persistent cough, shortness of breath. Liver damage manifest as abdominal pain, jaundice and vomiting. Penetration of the tumor into the bone causing excruciating pain, which cannot be reduced with analgesics.

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Symptoms


It is difficult to identify the initial signs of cancer, their symptoms are usually worn, soft. Developing cancer and cervical cancer are as follows:

  • critical days be long and painful, with abundant blood loss;
  • appear spotting discharge, profuse of bleeding that occurs after overload;
  • sexual intercourse causes pain when the outbreak of cervical cancer;
  • occur watery leukorrhea;
  • during sex spotting;
  • during gynecological examination, blood appears on the cervix;
  • constipation;
  • difficulty urinating;
  • in running situations in which cervical cancer metastasizes, you may see the following signs of cancer of intoxication:
    • quick weight loss,
    • lack of appetite,
    • constantly keep a high temperature,
    • anemia,
    • the formation of a fistula, fecal discharge from the vagina,
    • shortness of breath,
    • swelling of the legs,
    • destruction of lymphatic vessels in stage IV leads to a watery vaginal discharge
    • the disintegration of the tumor is accompanied by discharge of pus.

Diagnosis

Cervical cancer is fairly easily diagnosed in the initial phases, allowing you to begin treatment in a timely manner. So prevention to conduct periodic gynecological examinations, the elimination of the disease at the precancerous stages.

Diagnosis begins with a medical history. The gynecologist finds out the presence of cancer of the reproductive organs from relatives. Appoints the following procedures:

  • Vaginal gynecological examination with mirrors. The doctor observes hypertrophy of the cervical canal, the vaginal vaults, sees a lumpy tumor, bleeding, ulcerated with purulent borders. If colposcopy finds abnormal epithelium.
  • Bimanual examination allows to probe the uterus. The soreness and density of the body — evidence of a malignant neoplasm.
  • Aimed selection of cervical smear. For cytologic examination is performed a target biopsy of suspicious areas of the cervix, endocervical curettage.
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Clinically distinct types of cancer in conjunction with morphological testing results provide a basis for holding the specifying diagnostic measures. It is necessary to determine the extent of cancer tumors, to choose a suitable method of treatment of the patient.

When neoplasm of the cervix are identified, to assess its magnitude, detection of metastases and choice of tactics of the further treatment of the cervix use:

  • examination of the bladder by cystoscopy;
  • sigmoidoscopy;
  • radioisotope renography;
  • Ultrasound;
  • a chest x-ray;
  • MRI.

Treatment

Neoplasm of the cervix without treatment is a threat to life. Developed the following methods of treatment:

  • Operation. In the initial stages shown a cervical conization. In advanced cases the tumor is removed along with the uterus and appendages.
  • Radiation therapy is the destruction of malignant cells high-energy radiation.
  • Chemotherapy for cervical cancer intended for the last stage of the disease, when diagnosed with metastatic or relapsed. The method is fraught with complications, because they are based on the destruction of malignant cells with toxic substance. Healthy cells suffer as well. After chemotherapy, cervical cancer, giving metastases involves rehabilitation measures to restore the immune system.
  • Immunotherapy. As an additional method applicable to recovery after surgery. Immune restoration is needed after chemotherapy treatments.

Cancer treatment does not guarantee complete recovery. Not excluded recurrences for several years after the end of therapies. The spread of metastases beyond the borders of the removed tumor is the cause of relapse.

Forecast

Cancer is a fatal disease. Evaluation of results of treatment carried out with the use of the term “five year survival”. The survival rate depends on the stage, on which was revealed the tumor, presence of metastases and the individual response to the medication. Detailed statistics are presented in the table.

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Stage, and factors I II III IV
The detection rate of 38% 32% 25% 5%
The average age of the patient 47 years old 57 55 59
5-year survival rate 78% 57% 31% 7%

Prevention


Prevention of cervical cancer is directed at preventing the disease and its recurrence after treatment. All patients, past treatment, it is proposed to occur at the gynecologist 5 years. Who else is not sick, should heed the following advice:

  • Have one sexual partner. Keep a regular sex life.
  • For the prevention of STD’s use condoms.
  • If you had unprotected sex, use of hygienic sex tools.
  • Give up Smoking. Vasoconstrictor effect of nicotine interferes with blood supply to the genitals. Resinous substances contain carcinogens.
  • Use of hormonal contraceptives only after examination by a physician and in the absence of contraindications.
  • Requires regular visits with a gynecologist, since prevention of cervical cancer is directed including on timely cure of precancerous lesions.
  • Nutrition should be rational, and the use of food additives is regulated.