Scarring of the cervical canal
Scarring of the cervical canal or cicatricial deformity of the cervix caused by the appearance of scars due to lacerations on the surface of the uterus. This changes the anatomical shape of the uterus and the physiological state of the cervical canal, and vagina. Scarring of the cervical canal of the uterus may lead to various diseases, including cancer. Develops cicatricial deformity usually in childbearing age.
Causes scarring of the cervical canal
The most common cause of scarring of the cervical canal are obstructed labour, accompanied by damage or tearing of the tissues on the surface of the uterus. The disease can appear not only after a natural birth, but at birth using medical forceps, conducting extraction of the fetus. Of particular danger are home birth outside medical institutions, and passing without the help of a qualified professional.
Pathology also develops as a result of surgeries performed on the cervix of the uterus; abortion by curettage; in spontaneous abortion; the result of inexpert stitches. A rare cause of scarring of the cervical canal is a congenital defect caused by hormonal physiological complications.
How is the scarring of the cervical canal?
As a result, deformation of the tissues of the cervix at the point of tears changed the processes of building nerve cells and microcirculatory blood. This, in turn, leads to trophic disorders of the cervical canal, the subsequent deformation of the cervical canal with slack in it the mucous layer in the vagina. In this form, the so-called cervico-vaginal fistula.
Wall cervix lined by columnar epithelium. It produces mucus, which is characterized by an alkaline environment. Cancer of the walls of the vagina produce mucus, which is characterized by an acidic environment. The deformation of the cervical canal its slimy layer is inverted into the cavity of the vaginal canal overlaying alkaline and acidic environments that leads to inflammation of the uterine cervix and the development of infectious process.
Symptoms and effects of deformation of the cervical canal
Scarring of the cervical canal refers to those diseases that have long asymptomatic. Therefore, the presence of at least one of the following symptoms should cause a mandatory visit to the gynecologist:
- stretching vaginal discharge with a white color;
- aching lumbar pain, or pain in the pelvic region, perineum;
- change cyclicity of menstruation;
- heavy menstrual bleeding;
- painful sensations during sexual intercourse.
Scarring of the cervical canal can cause cervicitis, as well as become the background for the development of malignant tumors. Expressed cicatricial changes of tissues could become a serious obstacle to gestation as a result of development ICN (isthmic-cervical insufficiency).
Diagnosis of scarring of the cervical canal
When analyzing the severity of the disease there are three degrees:
- Table 1 – observed gaps up to 2 cm;
- Stage 2 – there are gaps of more than 2 cm, not involving the vaginal vault;
- Stage 3 – there are tears involving the vaginal vault.
Diagnosis a gynecologist conduct an examination with the help of mirrors, takes a PAP smear, and makes recommendations on the delivery of bacteriological analysis. Colposcopy is often done, as it is quite informative when studying the nature of the deformity. In the process of its implementation examines the surface of the cervical canal, it folds into the area where he turned in the vaginal canal.
A gynecologist may also perform a biopsy, that is, the fence is a piece of suspicious tissue for histological research on the goodness or the malignancy. If the scarring of the cervical canal – a congenital disease, the doctor recommends to carry out the analysis of hormones in the blood.
Treatment of deformation of the cervical canal
Scarring of the cervical canal relates to curable diseases. When choosing a method of treatment, the doctor is guided by the test results, the woman’s age, concomitant diseases, if any. The operation involves the removal of the deformed parts of the tissues, restoring the anatomical shape of the neck, the normalization of the physiological state of the cervical and vaginal canals, the resumption of reproductive activity.
Surgery is performed at the end of lactation, but not earlier than 6 months after delivery. In case of successful outcome of the operation, a woman may plan a new pregnancy.
- Excision is performed by a bloodless cutting of tissue of the uterine cervix and removal of damaged sections and their subsequent study.
- A cone biopsy is a conical cutting the abnormal tissue, hence the name of the operation.
- Reconstruction-plastic method involves not only the removal but also the change in the shape of damaged areas.
Can be also used innovative laser, electrical, ultrasonic and microwave methods. If the warpage is minor, apply a destructive influence: diathermocoagulation, cryodestruction, laser vaporization:
- Surgical diathermy cautery means a pathological tissue by an alternating high frequency current.
- Cryosurgery is based on the cooling of the damaged areas of the cervix with liquid nitrogen, the temperature of the cooled area can fall below 100 degrees Celsius.
- Laser vaporization involves the evaporation or burning abnormal tissue with a laser beam. Vaporization is a point, bloodless and painless procedure, which lasts no more than 20 minutes.
- Radio wave therapy – the impact on the pathological area by using radio waves. Considered the most progressive method of treatment of cervical pathology.
If you use the destructive method rehabilitation takes place within six months. During rehabilitation, the woman refrains from sexual contact and regular visits to the gynecologist.