Symptoms of toxoplasmosis, diagnostic methods of examination

Toxoplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by Toxoplasma, which is difficult to diagnose without special methods. The latent course of the disease and similar symptoms with other infections in the body explain the late referral for qualified help. To determine the severity of the inflammatory process and the scale of the defeat let symptoms. Toxoplasmosis occurring in an acute form, is the most dangerous condition for the female body, especially during pregnancy.

The etiology of the disease

Toxoplasmosis in humans causes the simplest pathogen Toxoplazma gondii. Toxoplasma gondii belongs to the sporozoa, which cause intestinal diseases in humans and animals. When entering a foreign agent in the body’s immune system begins to actively produce antibodies (Ig M, Ig G).

If the immune system is strong, the disease mostly occurs in mild form followed by a transition into chronic toxoplasmosis. By reducing the resistance of the organism toxoplasmosis manifested severe symptoms of infectious disease, indicating an acute form.

Form of the disease The nature of the flow
Sharp
  • the increase in body temperature to febrile figures;
  • severe headache in the occiput area;
  • swollen lymph nodes;
  • degerativnye processes in the retina of the eye;
  • the symptoms of food intoxication with symptoms of dyspepsia;
  • pneumonia;
  • inflammation of the meninges.
Chronic
  • pathology of organs of hearing;
  • mental retardation due to brain damage;
  • hydrocephalus;
  • atrophic changes in the retina, optic nerve, vision loss;
  • epilepsy;
  • endocarditis.
Latent
  • is characterized by the absence of pronounced symptoms of toxoplasmosis, which can diagnose by using special research methods.

The causative agent of toxoplasmosis begins to multiply in the gut, and then with a current of lymph and blood spreads throughout the body.

Toxoplasmosis is the life cycle of Toxoplasma consists of two phases:

  1. Trophozoite – the initial stage of development of the parasite, which when introduced into the body’s cells begins active reproduction with the subsequent formation of cavities inside the cytoplasm.
  2. Tissue the cyst presented the interim form of stay of microorganisms, which under the action of gastrointestinal enzymes leave the shell and penetrate the mucous of the gastrointestinal tract. Then with the flow of lymph is distributed to the muscles and brain. In this case, man becomes the final host microorganism.
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There is a special kind of tissue cysts present in the feces of animals. They are called oietai. The most common hosts of oocysts are domestic cats that pose the greatest danger to humans in terms of infection.

Diagnostic methods

Toxoplasmosis has a long incubation period, which is 20 days before the first symptoms of the disease. Signs of toxoplasmosis in humans, it is difficult to identify independently for diagnosis.

However, contact with animals (saliva, urine, feces) can be suspected symptoms of infection:

  • prolonged elevation of body temperature;
  • signs of acute viral infection of the upper respiratory tract;
  • the symptoms of food intoxication;
  • severe headache in the occipital area;
  • recurrent pain in the muscles;
  • blurred vision, increased sensitivity of the eye;
  • inflammation, swollen lymph nodes.

These symptoms indicate the necessary expert advice (infectious disease specialist, gastroenterologist) for a medical diagnosis. The doctor will explain in detail what toxoplasmosis. Diagnostic procedures consist of a visual, laboratory, instrumental examination of the body:

  1. Visual inspection of the patient, the study of the history, requirements complaints. The doctor in chronological order recovers the events that could cause infection by Toxoplasma: contact with Pets, consumption of poor quality food, water, occupational factor, presence of systemic diseases. The study is also subject to the presence of an Allergy in the anamnesis of the patient.
  2. Visual inspection of the lymph nodes. With toxoplasmosis, they lose their elasticity, erythematous, touch external stimuli causes pain. The increase in size and soreness is also observed in the liver, spleen.
  3. CBC aims to identify antibodies to Toxoplasma. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is conducted using blood, lymph and any other biological fluid in the body. The presence of blood group antibodies IgM indicates recent infection (up to 1 – 3 months), which is particularly dangerous during pregnancy. Antibodies of the IgG group indicate a prolonged stay of Toxoplasma in the body (more than 6 months).
  4. Parasitological research method using a biopsy body fluids or smears less informative, because it does not determine the time of appearance of toxoplasmosis.
  5. Cytological method of investigation in Romanovsky allows to detect toxoplasmosis, and to identify the characteristic symptoms in women. The staining of the cytoplasm in a bluish hue suggesting the presence of toxoplasmosis.
  6. Ultrasound diagnosis is an auxiliary method of determining toxoplasmosis, localization of cysts. A study using ultrasound confirms the disease, indicates the scale of the inflammatory process and how to manifest.
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How do people become infected with Toxoplasma

The route of transmission of toxoplasmosis are in three groups:

  • Alimentary, in which the toxoplasmosis is the result of eating infected by Toxoplasma products. This situation arises as a result of insufficient thermal treatment.
  • Transplacental – is characterized by the appearance of toxoplasmosis in pregnancy, when Toxoplasma crosses the placenta from mother to fetus.
  • Feces – this way of transmission is the most common. Infection occurs through dirty hands in contact with animal faeces or soil. Tissue cysts and oocytes can survive in the soil for several years.

Forms of the disease

Toxoplasmosis can be congenital or acquired.

Congenital form of the disease diagnosed in infants who became infected from mother during pregnancy. If infection with Toxoplasma has occurred in the first trimester of pregnancy, then in most cases it ends in spontaneous abortion. Otherwise, the child is born with numerous anomalies.

Toxoplasmosis, diagnosed at an early stage of pregnancy, requires women to make responsible decisions about the future preservation of the fetus or abortion in order to avoid unpleasant consequences.

Toxoplasmosis in newborns is characterized by symptoms such as:

  • the increase in body temperature;
  • icteric color of the skin due to increased bilirubin in the blood;
  • lack of muscle tone;
  • redness and soreness of the liver and spleen;
  • inflammation of the lymph nodes;
  • pathology of the Central nervous system;
  • the defeat of the cardiovascular system;
  • degenerative processes in the eyeballs;
  • pneumonia;
  • an allergic rash.

Acquired toxoplasmosis in a latent form flow becomes chronic. Chronic toxoplasmosis is characterized by symptoms of prolonged intoxication with impaired cardiovascular, digestive, nervous system, lesions of the eyes.

In the diagnosis of chronic toxoplasmosis it is important to exclude infectious diseases with similar symptoms:

  • herpes virus infection;
  • chlamydia;
  • autoimmune diseases;
  • inflammation occurring in the chronic form;
  • Oncology.


Treatment of chronic toxoplasmosis provides for long-term use of drugs with Antiprotozoal activity and of means increasing resistance of the organism.

  1. Tinturin (Hloridin, Daraprim) is effective against toxoplasmosis. Pregnant women it is prescribed in combination with folic acid and vitamin b-12 increasing the number of antibodies or vision problems caused by toxoplasmosis. Therapy is effective when a sufficient drinking regime during the entire course of medication.
  2. Antibiotic therapy involves a two-stage reception of the sulfa drugs and macrolides according to the scheme prescribed by doctor. The course of treatment usually lasts for 6 – 8 days.
  3. Vaccination against toxoplasmosis is a method of specific desensitization toxoplasmosis antigen that destroys the membrane of the elementary body. It is prescribed to patients with lymphadenitis, myocarditis, Wisteria, in miscarriage, stillbirth. The course of treatment within 1 month prevents repeated relapses in 20% of cases. To ensure stable remission, you need to spend 2 to 3 courses, but it individually in each case.
  4. Receiving membraneprotective (vitamins E, D, Apilak, lecithin, quercetin) in combination with drugs that can restore the intestinal flora (Linex, BIFI-form, Laktovit, Biosporin), promote speedy recovery.
  5. Antihistamines eliminate Allergy symptoms, reduce swelling lymphadenitis in the (Suprastin, loratadine, Diazolin).
  6. Enzyme preparations have choleretic effect, and antispasmodics are used symptomatically to eliminate the phenomena of discomfort.
  7. Multivitamin complexes and immunomodulators used to increase resistance of the organism during the treatment period.
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Treatment of toxoplasmosis is different in each case. It depends on the causes of the General resistance of the organism, the presence of systemic diseases in history. Symptoms of toxoplasmosis can be difficult to diagnose yourself. By a qualified specialist when any characteristic signs of infectious disease will prevent likely complications and recurrence of the disease in the future.