The first day menstrualnogo cycle what it is

First period testify to achievement of a girl of childbearing age. From this point on she can get pregnant, this ability persists until menopause. A regular cycle of equal duration — a sign of the health of the female body. Women need to know all about the first day menstrualnogo cycle: what it is, what symptoms say about his approach and how to understand what was the reason for the delay. Absence of menstruation is a sign not only of pregnancy but also of many dangerous diseases.

What is the mechanism of the menstrual cycle?

The menstrual cycle is a complex physiological process consisting of two phases and is associated with serious hormonal changes in the body. For ease of reference, this mechanism will present it in the form of a table.

Many women ask the question: how many days lasts menstruational cycle? Its ideal duration is 28 days, but because of the action of external factors (illness, stress, medications, etc.), there may be deviation up or down.

Period (cycle days) Predominant hormones The changes in the body
I (1-14) — the follicular phase Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), estrogen (estradiol), luteinizing hormone (LH) Under the influence of FSH is the follicle maturation. At the same time increases the amount of estradiol, promoting the buildup of the endometrium.

With increasing estrogen, FSH value falls to the minimum (mid-cycle). Together with this increase the levels of LH and progesterone.

Ovulation (LH maximum value): the ripened egg leaves the ovary and moves to the fallopian tubes. The use of birth control pills blocks the process.
II (14-28) — the luteal phase Progesterone, estrogens In the early phase levels of progesterone and estrogen maximum. If conception occurred, the amount of hormones increases, which gives the opportunity to bear a child.

But if fertilization does not occur, then the level is reduced to a minimum by the end of the cycle and the rejection of the endometrium (menstruation). Before menstruation again increases the amount of FSH and the cycle repeats.

The start date of the cycle is the first day of menstruation. The duration of bleeding individual and on average from 3 to 6 days. Hormonal changes in the female body are accompanied by certain symptoms.

The symptoms of approaching menstruation

Many women each month are faced with the signs of approaching menstruation. The severity of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) depends on the characteristics of the organism and external factors.

Girls who have reached the age of sexual maturity, signs of the coming period are:

  • the appearance of pubic hair and armpits;
  • breast enlargement, increase of their sensitivity;
  • extension of the hips, making the figure becomes more feminine.

The appearance of the above changes in appearance need to hold a conversation with the girl and warn her about the approach of menstruation. Adult woman familiar symptoms the first day menstrualnogo cycle, and she doesn’t need to explain what it is.

Signals of approaching menstruation appear within 2 – 10 days before they start:

  • increase Breasts, increase its density and sensitivity caused by the tide mammaries blood;
  • acne rash localized mostly on his forehead. As a rule, it is not typical for women after 40;
  • poor selection of brown color;
  • increased appetite;
  • the weight gain due to hormonal and emotional changes;
  • immediately prior bleeding appear painful sensations in the abdomen, sometimes radiating to the lower back.

Some women about the beginning of menstruation signals the number of neuropsychiatric symptoms (PMS):

  • irritability;
  • increased nervousness, depressing;
  • tearfulness;
  • anxiety and aggression;
  • sudden mood changes;
  • headaches;
  • nausea, reaching to vomit;
  • swelling of extremities;
  • bloating;
  • frequent urination;
  • increased sexual desire;
  • sleep disturbance;
  • dizziness and weakness;
  • indigestion, etc.

All the signs of menstruation can occur both in complex and separately. Medical studies have shown that after 40 years, the intensity of these symptoms increases.

However, if PMS delivers significant discomfort, you may need professional help. After the screening will be assigned to the pills that block the manifestation of menstruation.

Why the onset of menstruation may be delayed?

The menstrual cycle — a common cause of treatment to the gynecologist, characterized by the irregularity of the onset of menstruation, severe pain and profuse secretions.

The female body is affected by external factors, frequent hormonal changes (pregnancy, childbirth, menopause, etc.), resulting in periods can come earlier or later than scheduled. The variances of cycle times within a week do not indicate its rarity, it is therefore considered that normally this period ranges from 21 to 35 days. Delay exceeding forty days should cause concern.

A violation can occur for the following reasons:

The external impact. The action of external factors, such as stress, change of climate, sudden changes in diet (e.g., strict dieting). After their elimination the duration of the cycle should be fine.

Pathologies. Pathological processes in the body:

  • diseases of the female genital organs: cystic masses in the ovaries, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, endometrial polyps, inflammation of the pelvic organs, cancerous tumors, etc.;
  • malfunction of the pituitary gland, adrenal cortex, responsible for regulating female hormones;
  • low blood clotting;
  • natural and artificial interruption of pregnancy;
  • surgery.

Medicines. The use of agents that affect the regulation of the menstrual cycle (intrauterine device, hormone replacement therapy, birth control pills, etc.). Acceptance and cancellation of such medicines should be carried out only by a specialist.

Pregnancy. The delay, combined with the monthly symptoms, especially pain in the abdomen and spotting brown discharge, it is possible to speak about the threat of interruption of pregnancy or the location of the embryo outside the uterine cavity. In this case, to save the life of a child and woman, need to urgently seek qualified help.

Age after 40 years. In this period there is a decrease in the level of female sex hormones and their deficiency may be missing your period.

To determine the reasons for the delay menstruation the necessary diagnostics, including:

  • inspection on the gynecological chair;
  • PAP smears from the vaginal mucosa, which reflect the number of pathogenic microorganisms that can cause infection,
  • a blood test for HCG to confirm or exclude pregnancy. To pass it is necessary because in early pregnancy test can show a false result because of the low content of the hormone in the urine;
  • Pelvic ultrasound, in which particular attention is drawn to the condition of the ovaries and uterus;
  • Abdominal ultrasound and thyroid is vital to avoid pathologies of the endocrine system;
  • a blood test for the amount of hormones that can identify an imbalance in a certain phase of the cycle. After administration of tablets containing the missing hormone, menstruational period is normalized;
  • for women after 40 years it is necessary to consult a mammologist;
  • MRI, which detects the presence of tumors in tissues.

Often to determine the exact cause of enough specialist examination and laboratory data of blood. Understanding the importance of reproductive health for women, it is recommended that, regardless of complaints 2 times a year to see a specialist and pass the necessary tests.

Timely detection of the cause will allow you to maintain the normal functioning of the reproductive system. With special attention to such violations should be treated women after 40 years.

The first day of menstruation is the starting point of the menstrual cycle, the regularity which is a major feature of women’s health.In violation of the cycle need to be examined by a gynecologist to identify the factor that caused the failure.

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