The stages of preparing women for IVF and possible complications
In vitro fertilization procedure is called, giving a chance for couples to have children when the diagnosis of infertility. To achieve the result, must pass through all stages in sequence established by the Protocol. Before the procedure requires a long preparation for IVF woman. Therefore, to reduce the risk of unsuccessful attempts to conceive a child, you must comply with all recommendations of doctors.
Stages of IVF
Depending on the characteristics of the organism and presence of accompanying diseases, the doctor will determine how many days it will take preparation to planting the embryo. The stages of IVF in the program are as follows:
- A survey of women and preparation for the procedure.
- Stimulation of superovulation.
- Puncturing follicles.
- Fertilization of oocytes.
- Cultivation of embryos.
- The transfer of the embryos.
- The final step after the transfer of embryos.
The IVF procedure includes these steps, to which the woman should follow the recommendations. This will help her as early as possible to prepare the body for the upcoming pregnancy. Timely monitoring of IVF days will allow you to control the whole process and reduce the risk of complications.
Recommendations for preparation for IVF
For the doctor to complete the medical history, which make all data obtained by questioning the patient, inspection, and after diagnosis. The doctor will in detail tell about the preparation for the IVF procedure. It includes the following:
- proper nutrition;
- the medication;
- drinking regime;
- athletic training;
- the correct way of life;
- weight control;
- the treatment of chronic diseases.
The first stage of the program is the organization of proper diet. She should explain that it is impossible to include in your diet, and it is important for the body. Fried, salted, smoked, fatty and spicy dishes. It’s necessary to eat balanced, taking into account the daily requirements of proteins, carbohydrates and fats. A woman should eat daily fruits and vegetables, to enrich the body with vitamins before IVF and strengthen the immune system.
Not recommended to use medicines and they should be abandoned. Allow only those medicines that increase sensitivity of an organism to substances included under paragraphs IVF program.
At the stage of preparation for the tests a woman should drink at least 2 litres of water. Drinking regime cleanses the body from toxic substances deposited in organs. The process of ovulation stimulation drugs give a high load on the body, so you need to drink a lot of water. At this point, the fluid needs and as a means to prevent ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (reaction to the procedure performed for the rapid maturation of oocytes).
The first symptoms are:
- the increase in size of the ovaries;
- low pressure.
This condition requires special treatment.
Athletic training is a necessary component to prepare for IVF. Being not recommended. Enough to perform light exercise lasting no longer than 40 minutes 4 times a week.
A proper lifestyle is the key to successful in vitro fertilization. So the woman is contraindicated alcohol, the use of which there is a high likelihood of defects in the fetus. This may explain why do not survive implantable embryos. Smoking at the future mother reduces the response of the body to stimulation. As a result, the success of a positive result is less than 50%.
Lifestyle includes not only a ban on alcohol and Smoking. Woman need proper sleep, which normally takes 7 – 8 hours.
To protect the immunity of the mother and fetus should be carried out vaccination against infectious diseases. Pre-need consultation with the doctor and his permission to perform the following vaccinations:
- hepatitis b;
Vaccination is carried out for 2 – 3 months before IVF.
In the presence of obesity should take care of yourself and to lose weight. Excess body mass reduces the effectiveness of drugs that are injected to stimulate. As a result, the body and it may not respond. The embryo can settle down in when you run the program in women with overweight, but the process of gestation will be difficult.
Before joining the IVF Protocol should be the treatment of chronic diseases. For prevention, a woman should observe proper lifestyle and take vitamins.
A series of tests before IVF
A survey of women conducted a pre-IVF Protocol. Initially, determine the reserve of oocytes, which lies at the genetic level. With age, their number decreases, and additional negative aspects are:
- operations on the ovaries;
- the radiation exposure.
To determine ovarian reserve, must pass the tests to determine the level of FSH, LH, estradiol, prolactin (3-5 days of menstruation), androgen, AMH and inhibin B. In the first few days of the menstrual cycle is assigned a study to determine the number of antral follicles.
Be sure to take a smear on flora from the vagina to exclude infection.
On the first day and in the middle of the menstrual cycle, the patient has to donate blood to control the level of hormones. Also carried out inspection of the pelvic organs using ultrasound. After completion of all surveys and training ECO.
For a week or 10 days before the onset of menstruation should make an appointment to see a doctor. The specialist should examine all the results obtained in the surveys, and then introduce the woman to the IVF Protocol.
Then the patient explains how there is a further maintenance program. Initially populated with the individual sheet with prescription drugs. It walks you through the entire treatment regimen, which it is required to pass. The physician sets the timing for the next appearance on the survey in order to monitor the status in the process of therapy.
Stimulation of superovulation
At this stage hormonal drugs to stimulate the maturation of oocytes. The puncture may produce up to 10 to 20 oocytes that will develop and turn into embryos for replanting woman. So many eggs it is necessary to increase the likelihood of pregnancy.
To stimulate effective hormonal medications prescribed by a special scheme. To give life to a large number of eggs, assign the following tools:
Puregon stimulates the production of FSH, the task of which consists in the maturation of oocytes during the menstrual cycle. Orgalutran used to reduce the time of medication. This is achieved by blocking certain processes in the pituitary gland, which begin to produce less of its own hormones. Before performing puncture prescribed Pregna to accelerate full ripening of ovarian follicles.
In vitro fertilization method includes several types of protocols. They vary in duration of taking the drugs. In practice, often use short and long protocols. There are the following types:
- Supergranny, which takes up to 3 months.
- Ultrashort Protocol with a duration of 10 days.
- Natural cycle, when drugs to stimulate not appointed.
- Minimum stimulation in small doses.
At this stage a woman repeatedly prescribed an ultrasound, and depending on the obtained result, of necessity, reduce or increase the dose of the drug.
Puncture of ovarian follicles
Before performing in vitro fertilization, it is necessary to get the egg, which is carried out at this stage. The patient is administered in General anesthesia. The vagina is a gauge which gives a picture of the monitor screen with the follicles. The puncture of less than half an hour, and during the procedure, only take medium and large oocytes. The next day for several days a woman would be bothered by unpleasant sensations of pain pulling character in the abdomen.
Fertilization of oocytes and cultivation
After completion of the puncture and extraction of the egg they are passed to the laboratory where the embryologist separates the Mature oocytes. After washing from the follicular fluid they are placed in a nutrient medium and then transferred to an incubator until the formation of the zygote. Before this should occur fertilization in conditions of the tube. It is performed no later than 5 – 6 hours after receiving the eggs. The capacity is then transferred to an incubator, where conditions as close as possible to the uterine tubes. This artificially maintained at a constant level:
- the concentration of carbon dioxide;
The incubator has all the conditions for the penetration of sperm into the egg. In this monitor the timely cleaning and maintenance of the nutrients necessary for the embryo. Compliance with all conditions allows fertilization to occur within a few hours.
After in vitro fertilization to make an infusion of the woman can be only 90% of eggs. Division of the zygote in the tank begins immediately, and on day 3 the number of cells increases to 10. On day 5 are formed elements that will later become the placenta. This process should last for 5 – 7 days, then the embryo can be transferred to the woman. At this stage it will start to settle down by implantation in the uterine wall.
The transfer of the embryos into the uterus
The IVF procedure is performed in stages in the manipulation room. The transfer process takes no more than 30 minutes. Initially, the woman must explain how the procedure is IVF. For this purpose, catheter for embryo transfer together with a nutrient medium and vaginal mirror. The whole process is under the control of us. After the infusion of embryos a woman needs a few hours to stay in the hospital. After that, the patient goes home and control their own status. The doctor will give necessary recommendations, what kind of symptoms should seek help and when to not worry.
The final stage after the transfer of embryos
Many women are interested in what to do after embryo transfer into the uterus. After 15 days you must do a pregnancy test or blood HCG determination. Embryo development after transfer is gradual with the use of stimulating drugs, but in different dosages. So before this time you should not perform the test because the result at this stage will be negative.
The woman must explain how normal is the development of the embryo. It should continuously monitor their condition and to monitor any changes. In the first few weeks a woman can feel dizziness, headache and nausea, which is considered normal.
To relieve the condition after the infusion, the woman should know not only how is IVF, but also recommendations that must be followed:
- Within 3 weeks exclude sex.
- The first 3 days need to rest. So the woman should lie down and avoid abrupt bending, lifting and any physical activity.
- It is forbidden to use the swimming pools and saunas.
- During this period, it is important to take into account the nature of power.
When determining the level of HCG concentration is high and gradually increasing, then we can talk about the pregnancy. Confirm the conception on ultrasound.
Complications after IVF
The patient’s doctor should explain not only how the procedure works IVF, but also the presence of possible complications, which occur in rare cases. These include:
- Multiple pregnancy, which in time correct by aspiration of the embryos. If desired, the woman can leave all the embryos.
- The development of the embryo outside the uterine cavity.
- The occurrence of bleeding after the puncture during the egg retrieval.
If timely diagnosis and ensure the presence of women at the appointed time, you can avoid complications after IVF.
If a mother does not work, then IVF makes this dream real. After the examination and comprehensive training body the doctor will make a plant embryo. If the first IVF fails, don’t give up. Perhaps repeated IVF will be successful.