Treatment of atrophy of the mucosa in gynecology
Vaginal atrophy is a thinning of the vaginal epithelium and is directly connected with a decrease in blood concentration of estrogen produced by the ovarian follicles. This gynecological disorder is one of the most common diseases in older women, but its manifestations are possible in the reproductive period.
Risk group: persons susceptible to the disease
Atrophy of the vagina is most common among several groups of women:
- in a state of menopause;
- suffering from diabetes;
- with a diagnosis of “hypothyroidism” (thyroid dysfunction);
- past radiotherapy of pelvic organs;
- remove the ovaries;
- are carriers of the human immunodeficiency virus.
Thus, the disease affects women with disorders in the metabolic processes. A high percentage of morbidity in doctors is associated with increased life expectancy and aging population. Statistics argues that the atrophy of the vaginal mucosa exposed to almost a third of the female population, since the half life of the fairer sex takes place in conditions of hormonal imbalance.
The disease is at an early stage goes unnoticed, and not all women seek gynecological office for treatment.
The growth of the epithelium the top layer of dead exfoliated. These cells contain lots of glycogen and are a nutrient medium for lactobacilli, the so-called vaginal sticks Doderlein, a waste product of which is lactic acid. This substance creates an acidic environment in the vagina that protects the woman’s body from various infections.
There is another threat — obesity. When the normal balance of the vaginal flora is not disturbed. By reducing the production of estrogen will decrease the number of vaginal sticks, which causes the activation of conditionally pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus, Streptococcus and yeasts.
In gynecology consider the following reasons according to which there is atrophy of the mucosa:
- physiological aging and menopause;
- dysfunction or removal of ovaries, artificial menopause;
- recovery of ovarian function associated with childbirth and breastfeeding;
- endocrine diseases;
- heavy emotional loads, shocks.
The main symptoms of the disease
Often, the disease is almost asymptomatic and is defined at a late stage or if the infection after a few years since the beginning of atrophic processes. A woman comes to a gynecologist to treat atrophic vaginitis, caused by thinning of the epithelium.
Among the primary symptoms can be observed:
- discomfort, pain in the area of the vagina associated with thinning of the mucosa that is manifested to a greater extent during and after sex;
- burning, dryness of the vagina;
- private trips to the toilet, despite the absence of disorders in the urinary system;
- selection — “Beli”, Muco-purulent, bloody — connected with the reproduction of pathogenic microorganisms, damage to blood vessels;
- lack of lubrication during sex or a very minimal amount.
During gynecological examination the doctor will say:
- the presence of hemorrhages on the mucous membrane, clearly visible small capillaries;
- the looseness and wrinkling of the vaginal tissue;
- relaxation and prolapse of the vaginal walls.
Such symptoms most often occur after 5 – 10 years of menopause. However, in some cases, it may appear ordinary infection. To understand what and how to treat need to undergo a more thorough diagnostic.
Diagnosis of atrophy of the mucosa
The manifestation of at least one symptom she should go to the doctor. The gynecologist will prescribe a series of studies, but first have the regular inspection using mirrors to find out the condition of the mucous membrane. The bruising, unusual selection, the doctor will determine immediately. Further diagnostics will consist of the following:
- The colposcopy — it is recommended that extended studies using chemicals, acetic acid, iodine for the detection of glycogen, adrenaline. Shown in identifying concomitant pathology of the cervix.
- Samples for acidity — in normal condition the vaginal environment acidic, however when the disease it becomes alkaline.
- Smears — Cytology (the study of the tissues of the vagina on the cells, citogramma allows you to identify a benign condition, such as atrophy) and bacteriological (which examines the composition of the vaginal flora, it turns out, what bacteria cause problems; the presence of leukocytes, dead epithelial means colpitis).
- Bacterial analysis — sampling of the discharge from the urethra, cervix and vagina.
- PCR — a new method sensitive to different types of viruses such as human papillomavirus, herpes and others.
- Ultrasound examination was performed to diagnose prolapse of the walls, in acute forms of obesity and suspected precancerous condition.
Methods for the treatment of atrophy of the vaginal mucosa
Substitution therapy is carried out using a hormonal agents for oral administration (containing synthetic hormones progesterone and estradiol, like Ovestin), suppositories and creams (which contain the progestin — synthetic progesterone). Doctors prescribe the medicines containing phytoestrogens, but they are less effective.
Hormonal treatment is carried out for several years, but the result is noticeable after a month of use. The attending physician records the results in the diagnostic process, but even if positive it is worth remembering that atrophy is age-related manifestation, and can recur repeatedly.
Popular among women and candles “Methyluracil”, stimulating tissue regeneration, to reduce obesity.
In folk medicine widely used baths or douching with calendula, St. John’s wort, manufacturers advertise. A great way is the intake of juniper baths. Shown herbs for admission into ( mint, sage — sources of phytoestrogens). The therapeutic effect of hormone therapy varies, depending on individual characteristics of the organism, size of vessels, age of the woman. Besides, candles and creams to treat much faster than the tablets, however, have a short validity period — that is why hormonal therapy is conducted in the complex.
It is believed that the female body is a beneficial effect of the steaming in the bath: high temperature speeds up metabolism, improves blood circulation. The contrast of temperatures — rubbing with snow or ice swimming also promotes recovery of the organism. However, such tool available to women with cardiovascular disease.
Occurred on the background of thinning mucosa the vaginitis is treated with antibiotics and ointments, vaginal tablets (like “Teriana”), etc. Popular treatment of atrophic colpitis folk remedies — with the help of decoction of chamomile flowers.
Tips for the prevention and treatment of atrophy of the mucosa
Women with the onset of menopause to ignore the recommendations of doctors on hormonal therapy, many consider it to be even harmful. It is not necessary to start the disease and to postpone a trip to the gynecologist. Prevent disease the hormonal remedies in menopause, therapy with phytoestrogens and healthy lifestyle.