Trichomoniasis in women symptoms and treatment
Trichomoniasis (trichomoniasis) is among the most common infections of the urogenital area. The disease can manifest itself abundant discharge, itching and burning in women and sharp pains when urinating in men. The reason is simple microorganism, Trichomonas vaginalis (Trichomonas vaginalis), which with the help of flagella attached to the walls of the vagina and begins to actively proliferate. Trichomoniasis in women, the symptoms and treatment of which are described in this article requires taking the prescribed medicines and use of local ointments and vaginal suppositories.
Features of Trichomonas
There are more than 40 species of these protozoa. But in the human body is inhabited by only the following species of Trichomonas: intestinal, oral and vaginal. It is the latter under favorable conditions causes the disease trichomoniasis. Code disease in ICD-10 – A59.
The structure of the Trichomonas is characteristic of all protists: nucleus and vacuoles in the cytoplasm. These organisms are pear-shaped, randomly moving in space with the help of flagella. Can rotate around the axis. Propagated by division, nutrient uptake is the whole body.
Trichomonas is sexually transmitted, found only in the urogenital system. In other organs or in the external environment, it dies.
Etiology: how is trichomoniasis
Infection with Trichomonas occurs when vaginal Trichomonas penetrates into the body. This is the simplest and the body is able to actively move due to the flagella and to penetrate the mucous integument of the vagina or urethra. Then he begins to multiply, causing the defeat of the cells of the mucosa, erosion, and even ulcers. The presence of the organism Trichomonas leads to an increased risk of hepatitis and HIV infection.
In men, the urogenital trichomoniasis affects the urethra, prostate, testicles and their appendages, seminal vesicles, women — the vagina, urethra. The disease is most commonly diagnosed in women in reproductive age (up to 35 years), as they are more likely than men to undergo medical examinations. In addition, the manifestations of trichomoniasis in them more pronounced. Men in most cases are carriers of the infection without knowing it. Trihomonadonositelstvo is the complete absence of symptoms of disease with positive laboratory tests.
How is trichomoniasis?
Vaginal Trichomonas transmitted during sexual intercourse. Infection using common household items and things such as towels, washcloths, rarely happens. Can be transmitted from mother to child during childbirth.
To penetrate into the cavity of the uterus Trichomonas can abortion, childbirth or menstruation. This leads to salpingitis, inflammation of the ovaries, adhesions and other pathology. Threat trichomoniasis primarily to complications in the reproductive sphere. Without treatment, the disease can lead to infertility.
The clinical picture of the disease
The incubation period ranges from 1 to 4 weeks. The primary symptoms of trichomoniasis and always occur on the mucosa of the urethra. Further, the process can go on the vagina, cervix, bladder, and other organs.
Experts identify the following main symptoms of trichomoniasis in women:
- For abnormal vaginal discharge. They have a yellowish color, foam and have an unpleasant odor.
- In the area of the external genitalia and inner thigh there is itching and burning, perineum swells.
- Highly irritated vaginal mucosa, which when viewed can bleed. Genital warts appear.
- Inflammation brings discomfort during sex.
- Soreness of urination, frequency of urges.
- Sometimes urogenital trichomoniasis may cause dragging pain in the abdomen.
How does the chronic form of the disease? If the infection is acquired signs of chronic (lasts for more than two months), exacerbations occur more frequently just before or after menstruation. The rest of the time the symptoms of trichomoniasis is poorly expressed. In addition to the menstrual period, lead to the aggravation of the following factors:
- the absence or violation of rules of personal hygiene;
- the intake of alcohol;
- hypothermia, viral infections, low immunity;
- the weakening of the normal hormonal activity of the ovaries.
Due to the fact that trichomoniasis is typical for diseases of the sexual sphere the symptoms to determine the presence of the disease impossible. For this you need to consult a doctor and be diagnosed. It usually involves:
- smear on the flora (study under a microscope);
- bacterial inoculation;
- PCR diagnostics;
- General blood and urine.
After diagnosis, the doctor will select the optimal scheme of therapy.
Treatment of trichomoniasis
Vaginal Trichomonas sensitive to high temperatures in the external environment, it dies. Treatment of trichomoniasis in women based on the following types of medications:
- It is not enough to conduct therapy only one woman. Need to treat both partners, as in the case with all venereal diseases.
- During treatment should abandon sexual contact, ingestion of spicy food and alcohol, which can cause nausea and vomiting.
- Administration of drugs: Tinidazole, Trihopol, Tiberal, Nimorazole does not stop after 2 – 3 days, even in the absence of symptoms. Vaginal Trichomonas can hide, and then be activated again. It is therefore important the implementation of physician orders in terms of the treatment.
- The treatment of vaginal trichomoniasis complement the candles with metronidazole. Suppositories inserted into the vagina one daily before bedtime. The duration of treatment does not usually exceed 10 days.
- In addition to other medications the woman is prescribed immunostimulatory remedies, and vitamins.
- A second appeal to the gynecologist and tests reveal the effectiveness of the treatment. Within three months the woman should be screened regularly. Injection Pyrogenal is done with the aim of short-term immunosuppression and detect against this background of trichomonases in a smear (provocative test).
- Approximately 90% of cases of trichomoniasis coexists with gonorrhea, chlamydia, different types of fungal infections that also require appropriate treatment.
For treatment of trichomoniasis in pregnant women
Often the situation arises when the presence of Trichomonas vaginalis a woman knows, being pregnant. There is a need for treatment, so that trichomoniasis can cause premature birth.
At the end of the first trimester of pregnancy, when major organs of the future baby has already formed, you can take Antiprotozoal drugs (e.g. Metronidazole). Can also be assigned to local treatment with Clotrimazole
What can cause the disease
Vaginal trichomoniasis can lead to inflammatory processes in the uterus — endometritis, which is characterized by fever, unhealthy vaginal discharge, pain when urinating, increased heart rate.
The consequences of trichomoniasis in women include:
- inflammation of the vaginal mucosa, cervix;
- symptoms of urinary tract infections;
- the inability to conceive a child;
- complications of pregnancy, such as miscarriage, premature birth, fetal death;
- the conditions for the penetration of HIV.
Recent studies have shown that urogenital Trichomonas can cause diabetes mellitus, mastitis, cancer.
How to avoid illness
Prevention lies in the infections: what sensitive Trichomonas, how is it delivered?
Key measures limiting the risk of infection:
- Sex with a regular partner, which significantly is not a carrier of infection.
- The use of condoms, as in fluids (semen and vaginal secretions) are Trichomonas.
- Intimate hygiene. Timely care of the sexual organs. You cannot use other people’s towels, underwear.
- Preventive treatment to the doctor (every six months).
- In an emergency, ad hoc measures can be treatment of genital and vaginal cream — Betadine, or within one hour after intercourse. This will help to reduce the risk of infection from the partner. However, such a procedure should not become the norm, so as not to prevent infection completely.
- Remember that the body has no immunity to Trichomonas. Therefore, delays in treatment can lead to relapse. Also to prevent re-infection treatment of partner must be held mandatory.
Vaginal Trichomonas is one of the types of pathogens, parasites in the human body. Trichomoniasis in women, symptoms and treatment determined by the physician, is shown as follows: specific vaginal discharge, swelling and burning sensation in genital area, bleeding. For getting rid of the infection in the prevention of relapses treatment must be carried out by both partners.