Urogenital disorders in menopause
The onset of menopause leads to decreased production of the body’s hormones that contributes to the appearance of climacteric syndrome. Some of these symptoms are disruption of urinary sphincter and frequent urination. These disorders are accompanied by urinary incontinence, causing physical discomfort and psychological discomfort.
Types of urinary disorders during menopause
The first symptoms of menopause women begin to experience after 45 years. Due to the significant reduction in the secretion of female hormones, mainly estrogen, immunity lowering, the deteriorating state of the epithelium of the mucous membranes of the genitourinary system, the blood circulation of the bladder wall, reduced muscle tone of the urethral sphincter.
As a result of these processes may include the following types of urinary incontinence:
- Stress incontinence — occurs during exercise may be accompanied by coughing, laughing.
- Sudden incontinence — caused by the sharp contraction of sphincters of the urinary tract.
- Pain, burning sensation — one of the causes of these symptoms can be an inflammatory process of infectious nature.
- Frequent urination – caused by a spasm of muscles, increased impulses notes not only during the day and night portion of urine is small.
With the onset of menopause, a woman’s body becomes weaker and weaker resists infectious agents that penetrate into the urinary tract. Therefore, for removal of urinary disorders need timely access to a doctor.
If no qualified treatment can cause unpleasant complications:
- Infectious lesions of the genitourinary system.
- Irritation and inflammation of the skin in contact with uncontrollably secreted in the urine.
- The appearance in the groin, painful sores and cracks.
Diagnosis of disorders
For the successful treatment that occurs during menopause diseases of the genitourinary system, it is necessary to contact the medical institution and consultation of the gynecologist and urologist.
Diagnosis of disorders of urination in menopause includes series of tests:
- Sample Valsava — during its implementation, the bladder should be full when execution attempts from the urethra observed the production of small amounts of urine, this confirms the presumptive diagnosis.
- Test using a lining material, a woman engaged in physical exercise for 1 hour, the weight of the strip before and after school.
- Bacteriological analysis confirming the presence of inflammatory process in urinary system, if a woman suffers from cystitis is cystoscopy.
- Uroflowmetry — study of the health of the organs involved in the excretion of urine from the body.
- Cystometry to determine the degree of filling and emptying of the bladder.
- Profilometry — measurement of pressure in the urethra to determine the health of her sphincter.
- An EMG test, allowing to estimate the activity of muscle fibers of the pelvic floor.
To determine the daily frequency of urination allows conducting for a few days of diary in which the woman records the volume of urine, amount of urine, cases of urinary incontinence and other factors.
If necessary, appointed by ultrasound of the reproductive and urinary systems.
The treatment of urogenital disorders
Method of treatment of urinary disorders during menopause is prescribed by a doctor after the necessary diagnostic procedures and determine their reasons therefor.
Depending on the severity of the problems caused by the deficiency of female hormones, can be applied non-drug treatment type or with use of medications, where indicated, is surgery.
Non-pharmacological treatment includes the following methods:
- Exercises that strengthen the bladder. A schedule of urination, which should be strictly adhered to. The time intervals separating the emptying of the bladder, over time, increase. The average duration of the training course – 3 months, it is especially useful for women suffering from frequent urination.
- The complex of exercises developed by A. Kegel — increases the elasticity of the pelvic floor muscles, improving their work and helping to eliminate the negative effects caused by menopause.
- The appointment of physiotherapy, activating the blood circulation in the pelvic area and have a positive effect on muscle tissue, ligaments. This allows you to prevent the emergence in the organs of the urinary system congestion and increases the muscle tone involved in the process of urination.
The use of drugs
To normalize the level of estrogen – the main cause occurs when menopause disorders in the body women assigned to hormone replacement therapy. In combination with non-drug techniques it successfully eliminates incontinence and frequent urination. HRT may be systemic, local and combination, determination of the type of therapy is made after studying the history of the disease and the degree of manifestation of the disorders.
The normalization of the tonus of the bladder and elimination of peremptory disorders promotes the use of antispasmodics. For the treatment of inflammatory processes in the urogenital system, often accompanying climax, given oral antibiotics.
In cases where the first two methods of treatment do not give desired result, may be required to correct the problem surgically. The operation involves the imposition under the urethra free Prolene loop, is performed under local anesthesia with the test result directly during the surgical intervention. This method is less traumatic and is indicated for stress urinary incontinence.
Positive effect also makes use of the gel GIVE ( + ) implanted to surround the urethra space.
To prevent the development of disorders of urination during menopause is possible, adhering to a healthy lifestyle. Nutrition should be balanced, rich in vitamins and other helpful substances, exclude harmful habits, to abandon the use of strong coffee, to devote sufficient time to sleep and rest, walks in nature.
With the approach of menopause, it is desirable to devote time to regular physical activities, including strengthening the muscles involved in urination. Since premenopausal, indicating the first symptoms characteristic of menopause syndrome change in menstrual cycle, hot flashes, heart palpitations — it is recommended prophylactic administration of hormonal methods on prescription.