Vysokomehanizirovannoe adenocarcinoma of the endometrium
A tumor that affects the lining of the uterus tissue, called “adenocarcinoma of the endometrium”. There are several subspecies, at menopause, most often develops vysokomehanizirovannoe adenocarcinoma of the endometrium.
Disease malignant neoplasms recorded in the tissues covering the internal surface of the uterus. Suspected violation possible, if there are:
- unexplained pain in the abdomen;
- watery leukorrhea;
- haphazard bleeding;
- pain in the lower abdomen and lumbar region (late symptom).
- gynecological examination;
- cytological and histological analysis;
- ultrasound examination;
Treatment involves a combined approach that includes:
- radiation treatment;
- hormonal drugs.
Classification of subspecies
To treatment has led to success, it is important to determine the pathology, to draw conclusions about the projections and probable risks. Tumors initially are formed at the bottom of the uterus, at least near the isthmus, and then is spread to other tissues.
Developed several classification systems of adenocarcinoma of the endometrium. The division into subtypes depending on which region of the body struck, is not accepted. Often use the who classification. Tumors differ in structure, and this distinction is the formation of the who subtypes of cancer, there are:
- Vysokomehanizirovannoe endometrial adenocarcinoma – a cancerous disease affecting the glandular connective tissue of the uterus. Disease characterized by a low polymorphism, when pathologically altered cells in their structure such healthy. When the diagnosis revealed that the nuclei of cells of irregular elongated shape and more than normal. Adenocarcinoma spreads into the myometrium, pathology surface. Statistics show that when tumors in the bottom of the body in 1% of cases complications arise and develop metastases affecting the lymph system.
- Moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma of the endometrium is characterized high level of polymorphism, affects the cells of the mucous membrane and muscles of the body. Development similar to that described above. The difference is that, with moderate differentiation of the lesions cover a large area, involved a lot more cells. Possible complications, of pathological processes, if delay treatment or incorrectly diagnose the disease. Before other via lymph invasion in the pelvis. Metastasis is recorded in 9% of cases. Statistics show that the risk – women older than 30.
- Poorly-differentiated adenocarcinoma of the endometrium. In this case, the lesions form a strip, clusters, host of accidental forms. In the cytoplasm of fixed foam glycogen, lepidomelane content. Diseases peculiar to polymorphism, malignancy, when the cells from pathologically altered. In comparison with other varieties of uterine adenocarcinoma the low differentiation is accompanied by greater risk of deep lesions of the myometrium. The chances of metastasis in lymph nodes more in the 16 – 18 times.
If the tumor affects deep tissues, the disease klassificeret as the worst case. Malignant neoplasms for a long time not seen, and the diagnosis, when cure is not possible.
Vysokomehanizirovannoe is such a adenocarcinoma of the endometrium, which is characterized by high dependence on the concentration of hormones in the blood. Risk group – women 50 – 60 years in their menopause. A disease characterized by aggressiveness, transience, when malignant tumors are striking in neighbouring authorities.
The first stage of the disease – lesion of the uterus. Practice surgery: remove the uterus, appendages. The second is diagnosed if the process proceeds to the cervix. In the third stage, tumor grows in the vagina and of the uterus. In the fourth stage recorded distant metastases beyond the pelvis.
High-grade adenocarcinoma of the endometrium is exposed to all ages, as even in his youth, possible hormonal disturbances that trigger pathology.
When the high differentiation of the disease peculiar to a few branches. This is due to age: 45 – 65 years in a female body changes occur of the hormonal system and weakens the reproductive function, menstrual periods stop.
Vysokomehanizirovannoe adenocarcinoma of the endometrium occurs most often. In the pathology of the glandular epithelium produces mutated cells, which tend to differ from normal slightly, so the tumors partially take typical healthy tissue function.
At a high level of differentiation rely on the recovery, if managed in a timely manner to make an accurate diagnosis.
The test results in this case are similar to those in the atypical hyperplasia that leads to medical errors. While endometrial hyperplasia provokes the development of cancer. The initiator of a process is the stimulation of estrogen.
Statistics show that the risk of high-grade adenocarcinoma of the endometrium is higher when:
- problems of menopause;
- continuous use of estrogen drugs;
- uncontrolled use of oral contraceptives.
The extent of the disease
Are the following stages of high-grade adenocarcinoma:
|Zero||Carcinoma of the uterus.|
|First||The tumor does not extend beyond the uterus.|
|1A||Cancer infiltrates not more than half the thickness of the tissue.|
|1V||Cancer infiltrates half the thickness of the tissue.|
|1C||Cancer infiltrates more than half the thickness of the tissue.|
|Second||The tumor affects the cervix, not going beyond it.|
|2B||Affected stroma of the cervix.|
|Third||The cancer has spread regionally or locally.|
|3A||The striking metastasis ovary, suffers from serous membrane, abnormal cells are found in washings, asceticism effusion.|
|3B||Metastases are striking in the vagina.|
|3C||Metastases penetrate into the para-aortic, pelvic lymph nodes.|
|4A||Affected mucosa of the colon, bladder.|
|4B||Metastases penetrate into distant organs, lymph nodes.|
Causes of adenocarcinoma
The exact cause is unknown to science. Observations have shown that the risk is great:
- aged 50 – 65 years;
- if you have problems in metabolism;
- adiposity 2 – 3 degrees;
- in the presence of patients close relatives (mother, sisters).
Not to say that infertility is a cause of cancer, but the chance of development is higher if the woman did not give birth. Risk group include women whose menopause occurred at age 50 or later.
High-grade adenocarcinoma characterised by the following symptoms:
- Between periods observed abnormal bleeding. Possible spotting after menopause. Except for early stage adenocarcinoma of the endometrium a sign indicates polyps, fibroids or endometriosis.
- From the vagina unusual discharge are observed. Among the possible causes besides cancer – infectious diseases, benign tumor.
- The painful intercourse that is not related to a lack of natural lubrication.
- Pain syndrome of the abdomen. The reason is that the growing endometrium compresses nearby organs, leading to pain syndrome.
- Reduced body mass, weakness without obvious reasons.
The main problem of high-grade adenocarcinoma of the endometrium – the difficulty of detecting pathology. The symptoms are notice when the disease progresses to the late stage and metastases penetrate into the lymph nodes, affect adjacent organs. It happens that diagnosis, when the tumor is on the verge of collapse, leading to severe intoxication of the organism as a whole.
If you visit the gynecologist has a suspicion of a malignant tumor, if you were able to diagnose the cancer, the doctors quickly establish at what stage of the disease, the patient. If the patient is in serious condition and surgery is not possible, turn to hormonal therapy, radio and radiation exposure. If record relapse, prescribe chemotherapy.
For cases without obvious neoplastic processes prevent hidden metastases adjuvant chemotherapy. Traditionally it is a treatment for patients undergoing surgery. To keep in the surgical treatment of the uterus and to reduce to minimum possible damage to the body, pre-prescribed neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and commence operations only upon completion of the course. In the course of taking the drugs the doctors assess the extent of tumors susceptible to commonly used chemotherapeutic agents.
When high-grade adenocarcinoma appoint:
Classically resorted to a combination of funds, accounting for this treatment Protocol. Choose drugs whose effects are mutually supported. Additionally prescribe hormonal medications: tamoxifen, medroxyprogesterone.
Forecast: what to expect
In identifying high-grade adenocarcinoma of the endometrium at first stage, the prognosis is favorable, the probability of full recovery.
Need surgery followed by therapy, but a year later the quality of life is restored.
In the second stage, the treatment is complicated, but possible. The main problem is the vastness of the surgical field. The disease requires long courses of radiation and chemicals.
As vysokomehanizirovannoe adenocarcinoma of the endometrium requires the complete removal of the uterus, this leads to a hormonal disturbance and zero fertility.
The third stage, coupled with the abundant metastasis requires partial or complete removal of the vagina.
The fourth stage, accompanied by remediation activities, incurable. By carrying out various activities to achieve the survival of the patient, but in the future the woman will be faced with an abundance of aggravating factors.