What affects the thyroid?
Medical statistics indicate an annual increase in the number of thyroid diseases. Today, every third woman of reproductive age has functional impairment in the activities of this body.
The thyroid gland is an integral part of the human body, providing coordinated work of all organs and systems. Its main role is the development of iodine containing hormones-lotioning. A systemic disease caused by an imbalance of hormones on the development of which affects the thyroid gland.
Functional features of cancer
Weight of the endocrine glands is in the range of 12 – 25 g. Despite its small size, iron performs many important functions, regulating metabolic processes in the body.
Functional feature of the thyroid gland is to develop the following hormones:
- Thyroxine (tetraiodothyronine, T4). This hormone affects the metabolic processes, quick thinking, emotional stability. It controls blood pressure, improves energy processes in the body, as it accounts for 90% of all hormones produced by the gland. Is a prohormone of T3.
- Triiodothyronine (T3). The amount of this hormone in a woman’s body is 20 – 30% of the total number of thyroid hormones produced by the thyroid gland. He is involved in the process protein metabolism, positively affects the heart by reducing cholesterol levels. T3 normalizes metabolism and bone growth. Noted its positive impact on intestinal motility and synthesis of vitamins A, V. Triiodothyronine is responsible for the production of sex hormones, which is very important at an early age and in puberty, and controls the activities and development of the Central nervous system.
- Thyrocalcitonin (a peptide hormone). The main role of this hormone in activation of specific cells of osteoclasts that destroy the bone tissue and promotes the release of calcium into the bloodstream.
Mechanism of action thyroid stimulating hormone
Thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) are responsible for energy metabolism in the body. Its full operation they are required to thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). It is an important component in the metabolic system. Produced in the pituitary TSH regulates the activity of the Central nervous system controls the heart and vascular system, menstrual cycle, bowel motility.
Under the influence of TSH occurs iodine from blood plasma into cells “thyroid”. It controls the synthesis of fat, promotes regeneration of cell membranes, and high molecular organic compounds, proteins.
The amount of thyroid stimulating hormone regulates the Central nervous system — the hypothalamus. Its activity depends on many factors. The overabundance of T3 and T4 causes dysfunction of the glands, as they suppress the TSH. As a result, there was a proliferation of the glandular tissue and its increase in size. In medical terminology such as klassificeret as goiter.
Even a minor violation production of TSH indicates a functional disorder of the authority and requires consultation of the endocrinologist.
The parameters exceeding the permissible norm, point to phenomena such as:
- ectopic production of TSH (pituitary gland) when certain tumors;
- pituitary adenoma;
- thyroid cancer;
- state after severe somatic diseases;
- resistance to T3 and T4;
- taking certain medicines.
The level of TSH is an important indicator of the functional state of the gland.
Minor exceeding of the permissible and thyroid hormones observed during pregnancy. With a slight deviation, this state is considered as a physiological feature. However, in case of exceeding the permissible levels of hormones in pregnant women without the advice of an experienced specialist is necessary.
A temporary increase in TSH is noted after medication:
- Imunofan in cancer.
With insufficient development of TSH female experiences lethargy, intolerance to high and low temperatures. She is almost constantly present headache, slightly elevated body temperature. Memory disorder — another sign of low hormone concentrations.
On the basis of these symptoms endocrinologist may suggest the development of dysfunction of the gland. A similar condition is observed in the following cases:
- transient thyrotoxicosis;
- a tumor of the pituitary gland;
- the syndrome Itsenko-Kushinga;
- irrational use of synthetic hormones including oral contraceptives;
- emotional instability after the stress;
- inflammatory processes caused by viral or bacterial infection;
- strict diets, unbalanced diet devoid of iodine-containing products.
Among the main reasons that provoke functional disorders of the thyroid gland, are the following:
- Imbalance of thyroid hormones due to the development of autoimmune diseases. The body produces antibodies to thyroid cells, which act upon it destructively.
- Bacterial and viral infections can trigger the disease, side effects which are problems with the endocrine system.
- Intrauterine developmental abnormalities of the thyroid gland be felt from an early age.
- Genetics also plays an important role. Proven genetic predisposition to autoimmune diseases that provoke the dysfunction of the thyroid gland.
The emotional instability inherent in women during hormonal changes during menstruation, pregnancy and menopause — are not uncommon. Therefore, the appearance of weakness, apathy, depression, loss of appetite and other unpleasant symptoms they blamed on hormonal imbalance, which is characteristic for such periods. Few women take the decision to consult an endocrinologist at the first characteristic sign and complete a full course examinations.
The reason for seeking qualified help is hypothyroidism, which is manifested by symptoms:
- psycho-emotional instability, depression;
- the decrease in mental activity, memory impairment, decreased intelligence;
- disorders in the Central nervous system in the form of a delayed reaction;
- disorders in the digestive system, prone to constipation;
- disorders of the heart, bradycardia;
- lowering blood pressure;
- unwarranted weight gain;
- changes in vocal cords, the appearance of hoarseness;
- unpleasant sensations in the trachea.
Elevated levels of thyroid hormones accelerate metabolic processes in the body, provokes violations in the work of the CNS in the form of excessive emotionality, aggression, irritability, frequent mood swings.
Major symptoms of hyperthyroidism include:
- high blood pressure;
- arrhythmia, tachycardia;
- the appearance of puffiness in the eye area with protrusion of the eyeball;
- increased sweating, especially at night;
- intermittent fever;
- dysfunction of the genitourinary system (frequent urination, menstrual cycle, lack of libido);
- anorexia on the background of receiving sufficient food.
Visual inspection is not enough to 100% certainty in the pathology, as these symptoms are common signs of many diseases.
The complex of diagnostic measures includes the following procedures:
- General and biochemical blood tests;
- blood tests for hormones;
- determination of level of antibodies to thyroglobulin, the thyrocytes, autoantibodies;
- the study of the circulation within the gland by the method of the Doppler;
- With a lack of hormones prescribed medicines that contribute to their synthesis (codomain, Eutirox and others), with a high level of drugs that suppress the overactive gland.
Upon detection of cysts, tumors, nodes, surgical treatment is shown.
If increased TSH after partial or complete removal of the thyroid gland, the patient is prescribed special treatment: drugs that replace the hormones T3 and T4, in order to avoid the development of hypothyroidism.
Impact on reproductive function
Interested in the question of what effect the hormones of the thyroid gland, women often are interested in their impact on reproductive function.
Considering the fact that thyroid conditions are genetic in nature of origin, the presence of at least one case of the disease in the family should be the occasion for further consultations with an endocrinologist if you wish to get pregnant.
The discrepancy of thyroid hormones triggers the development of pathological changes in reproductive function:
- change in menstrual cycle;
- earlier onset of menopause;
- issues with infertility (anovulation);
- spontaneous abortion;
- abnormalities of intrauterine development of the fetus (mental retardation);
- of pathology of newborns.
Despite these phenomena, a pathological condition of the thyroid gland is not an indication for termination of pregnancy. Hormone replacement therapy — a prerequisite for pregnancy. Neglect of this rule threatens the development of irreversible consequences for the developing organism.
Timely diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction increases the chances of its recovery. The competent approach and integrated therapy can prevent the development of serious complications.