What is the cervix during pregnancy: norm and pathology

Why meet unwanted risks to the health of women? How important is the size of the length of the cervix in gestation?

The cervix during pregnancy protects the future of the fruit from infection by pathogenic bacteria, harmful fungi. The width of the channel in the norm is equal to 8 mm during childbirth it expands to 10 mm than facilitates the baby’s birth. During early pregnancy the throat, firmly hinging keeps the growing fetus.

The cyclicity of reproductive functions

The nature has made the female body changes in the function of the cervix in the days of the cycle. Menstrual period adjusts the cooking to conceive include:

  • ovarian cycle phase: follicular, ovulatory, luteal;
  • uterine cycle phase: menstrual, proliferative, secretory.

The changes correspond to the functions of drainage, barrier. The cervix before menstruation changes its tone and structure of epithelial cell layer, the outer jaws, the level of the formation of mucus acidity.

Table 1. Cyclical changes.

Period Changes
Premenstrual The cervix before menstruation elastic, solid, tightly close the outer jaws, the secret of sticky, thick, small amount. Ph =6.5.
Menstrual The tone is lowered, open the throat, rejected by the endometrial cells. 0.3 acidity. Die the cell structure of the outer layer of the epithelium.
Postmenstrually Preparing for the release of an egg. Thickens, endocervix. The accumulation of glycogen. Ph=7,3.

During gestation menstruation ceases, the cycle is interrupted. The secret glands closes the cavity, closes the throat. After six weeks of soft tissue, mucous lengthened. Cells gradually accumulate the aquatic environment, improve their protection.

Blood flow is enhanced in the second half of pregnancy changes of the collagen fibres, ensuring elasticity of the fabric. If a woman wants to do a biopsy, it is possible for 5 – 8 day after the end of menstruation.

Changes after fertilization

The fertilized embryo is fixed, the generic moves change. Have never given birth they have a flat cylindrical shape. Parous — conical. Outer mouth tightly closed until the end of the third trimester. The mucous plug blocks the uterine cavity. This prevents the penetration into infection. In the end IV trimester tube leaves the location alone. Find the selection, you need to see a doctor to rule out the possibility of miscarriage.

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Table 2. The length of the cervix in weeks.

The timing of gestation (in weeks) Norma (cm)
16 – 20 4 – 4,5
25 – 28 3,5 – 4
32 – 36 3 – 3,5

When carrying a child uterus the sizes vary depending on the position of the fetus. Under such conditions a woman wears a baby by the required deadline. Changes of cervix during pregnancy by week are expressed as follows:

  1. Color. Not pregnant generic course pink. During pregnancy the norm of the mucous bluish hue, owing to the rush of blood growing additional blood vessels.
  2. Softening. Touch more reminiscent of the softness of the lips.
  3. Location. At the time of conception the cervix is lifted, reveals the channel, ready to meet with sperm and fertilization. Then, the softened mucous sags below normal levels, due to the effect of progesterone and other hormones. With the development of the fetus begins the ascent.

Diagnostic pathology

The problems associated with carrying a child, found in the complete study. Abnormal length of the cervix in pregnancy carries the risk of miscarriage. Timely diagnosis will protect a woman from premature labor contractions. Servicemenu will show the status of the birth canal. Doctors assess their maturity scores.

Table 3. Properties of maturity.

Properties 0 points 1 point 2 points
Physical condition Dense, elastic Seal is seen in the throat, the rest of the body cervical soft Elastic, soft
Size, degree of smoothness 2 cm or more 1 – 2 cm Less than 1 cm, smooth
The cervical canal, its permeability When examining the tip of your finger is in the outer jaws The finger passes into the cervical canal The cervical canal is open for two-three fingers
Location Posteriorly Anteriorly In the middle

The birth process is individual, occupying mothers from several hours to several days before the fights. Size of cervix during pregnancy by week, texture of the mucosa is estimated by summing the points:

  • 0 – 3 — immaturity;
  • 4 – 6 — lack of maturity;
  • 7 – 10 — maturity.

Willingness to labor

The cervix to the touch for weeks has a different texture, smoothness, degree of maturity. To the 37-week term it is in an immature state. Maturity occurs before birth. The expectant mother is under supervision of gynecologist / obstetrician urgently prepare for cesarean section if necessary.

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The increased length of the cervix in the values may be borderline, in which there are symptoms of possible preterm labor. Ultrasound will show the status of the body. The doctor will be able to determine the length of 6 months using a vaginal sensor.

The causes of pathology

Pregnancy is often complicated risky changes of the organs of the expectant mother. The reasons nedonashivanie of the fetus are:

  • spontaneous miscarriage;
  • congenital abnormally shortened neck;
  • the inferiority of the cervical canal;
  • insufficient production of progesterone is an important female hormone, responsible for the full gestation, fertilization;
  • the traumatic consequence of surgical intervention;
  • hormonal failure, violation of the structure of tissues;
  • stress, panic;
  • infection of the pelvic organs, distortion of the mucosa, scars;
  • bleeding;
  • individual specifics of an organism.

Consequences of pathology

The possibility of starting premature labor resides in the shortening of a muscular organ, is diagnosed from 3.5 to 6 months. Woman is assigned an extra correction if:

  1. A shortened cervix is less than 10 mm, baby born at 32 week.
  2. The shortening from 15 to 10 mm in childbirth will come at 33 weeks.
  3. Less than 20 mm length — labors can occur in 8.5 months.
  4. At achievement of length from 25 to 20 mm, the characteristic appearance of the newborn to 36 week.

The establishment of a doctor ICN tells about the pathological condition of the isthmus, leading to spontaneous abortion in the last trimester.

Diagnosing the pathology, the doctor prescribes treatment, taking into account gestational age, the degree of shortening of the body. In the complex therapeutic process include:

  • conservative funds — progesterone, tocolytics;
  • is cerclage cervical throat, stitches are removed before birth;
  • superimposition of obstetric pessary (uterine rings); it eliminates stress and strain;
  • advised to minimize physical activity, exercise, exercises aimed at the pelvic area, abdominal cavity;
  • exception of sexual activity;
  • sedative — decoctions, infusions motherwort, Valerian;
  • rest;
  • the reception of the antispasmodics, recommended by the attending physician.

If shortening occurred at 37 weeks is normal and does not require corrective treatment. When discharge of amniotic fluid, the stitches are removed regardless of the trimester.

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Long neck

Exceeded the size of possible in the circumstances:

  • subjective anatomical structure of the body;
  • postoperative injury;
  • the disturbed psychological state.

Pregnancy does not depend on the length of the neck. But as you get closer to childbirth, she is able to open in fights. In this case, the obstetrician decided on a cesarean. Medical indicators of the process of childbirth is accelerated.

Labors in ICN

Shortened cervical length has an impact on labor and causes the processes of:

  • first mothers reveals the neck is 30 to 40 mm, come active birth;
  • during regular battles, the erection goes faster up to 10 mm in 1 – 2 hours.

Obstetrician-gynecologists klassificeret childbirth classes:

  • fast, continuing in nulliparous no more than 6 hours multiparous — up to 4 hours;
  • rapid — aged primiparas women become mothers no more than 4 hours, and women with children up to 2 hours.

Sexual activity

Sex requires the greatest forethought. The cervix during pregnancy responds to external stimuli. To completely eliminate sex is not recommended. The proximity will help to enhance blood circulation, give emotional solace. Achieved orgasm promotes sleep, reduces congestion in the veins.


  • to exclude violent emotions;
  • the entry of the penis men should be shallow to avoid injury to the cervix;
  • use a condom to prevent the entry of pathogenic bacteria;
  • the position to choose the most convenient for women;
  • it is prohibited to ejaculation in the vagina, so as not to contribute to the premature softening of the mucous membrane.

The process of carrying a baby requires attention. Any complications, discomfort should alert a woman to visit a primary care physician.