Hearing loss: causes and treatment of hearing loss

What factors lead to hearing loss and how to cure it?

Impaired function of the hearing aid in medicine is called hearing loss. In this pathology, you may experience partial hearing loss or total deafness. Currently, hearing loss is quite a common problem. In Russia this disease affects 13 million people, with more than a million among them are children under the age of 18.

Neonatal hearing loss is diagnosed in one child out of thousands. If this pathology develops in the womb or during the first year of baby’s life, the kind of hearing loss is called early. Accordingly, the later the hearing loss occurs in children older than year. To treat early deafness and hearing loss can be difficult, because the patient never heard of sounds and spoken language.

Causes of hearing loss

Hearing problems can have significant differences in nature of origin and intensity of symptoms. To understand this question, refer to the concept of the classification of hearing impairment.

There are three types of hearing loss:

  • sensorineural;
  • conductive;
  • combined.

Sensorineural hearing loss is considered the most common, and occurs as a result of the destruction of the hair cells that transmit to the brain sounds are converted into impulses.

Violation of the integrity of these hair cells may occur as a result of:

  • long noise;
  • infection in the inner ear;
  • the negative effects of toxins;
  • traumatic brain injury;
  • transferred radiation or chemotherapy;
  • for disorders of blood circulation;
  • neurological diseases;
  • after the stress.

Help. Sensorineural hearing loss often develops in patients with a genetic predisposition, and the elderly.

If the conductive disorder of the inner ear loses the ability to make sound waves. The causes of this disease are:

  • genetic disorder of the structure of the ear;
  • the formation of cerumen;
  • the accumulation of fluid within the middle ear;
  • infectious diseases;
  • violation of the integrity of ear drum;
  • the development of otosclerosis (immobility of the bones of the middle ear).

Some patients suffer simultaneously, and sensorineural and conductive hearing loss. This type of disease is called mixed. For its correction are used as drugs and hearing AIDS.

Hearing loss in one ear

Following are the causes of hearing loss in one ear:

  1. The accumulation of sulfur in one ear canal as a result of the activities of sulfur glands and neglect the rules of hygiene. When ear blockage sulfuric stopper there is a feeling of a foreign object in the ear, enhanced perception of your own voice in one ear, ear noise. Most often, the symptoms increase gradually, but sometimes perhaps a sudden onset, for example, when injected into the ear of water.
  2. Poor circulation in the arterial vessel of the maze. This condition can cause a blood clot or bleeding in the brain. Typically, hearing loss due to vascular disease begins suddenly and occurs on one side only.
  3. Mechanical lesions within the ear as a result of a blow to the head, a sudden loud noise near one ear, or when the electric shock. In this case, the patient concerned about pain in the affected ear, dizziness and loss of balance when walking.
  4. A complication of bacterial or viral infections can lead to hearing loss on one side.
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Hearing loss in old age

As a rule, older people have hearing loss develops gradually and refers to the sensorineural type. As a result of natural aging of the auditory organs and disorders of the hair cells, patients begin to experience difficulties when communicating in noisy places, because I can’t hear the individual words and, therefore, to grasp the meaning of the conversation.

Help. In most cases, significant hearing loss is seen in people over the age of 60 years.

Also in people with sensorineural hearing impairment have problems with recognition of high-frequency sounds — birds singing, children’s and female voices, musical instruments.

Normal speech of the people around the patient seems vague mumbling. In these patients the situation is aggravated also due to some changes in the brain areas which perform the function of perception of sound.

An important role in hearing loss in old age and play such diseases:

  • atherosclerosis;
  • violation of the functions of blood vessels caused by diabetes or hypertension;
  • the flu, of SARS;
  • heart failure.

Senile hearing loss requires therapeutic measures aimed at overall strengthening of the body, improve blood circulation and normalize metabolic processes. Completely cure the disease in elderly patients is almost impossible.

However, with the right approach, in most cases it is possible to improve the condition of the patient.

People who long time work in production in noisy environments, at risk for hearing loss in the elderly due to a combination of age and professional violations.

Hearing loss with otitis media

Causes of hearing loss in adults and children can be very different — infectious diseases, trauma, prolonged exposure excessive noise, etc. Common cause of hearing loss is untreated, acute suppurative otitis media in poor condition turning into chronic form.

Pathology is characterized by sudden sharp pain, developing as a result of:

  • through the defeat of the eardrums;
  • accumulation in the ear canal of a large number of pus, sulfur or epithelial tissue;
  • the incidence of infection of the auditory nerve.
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When running purulent otitis may form a dense structure of connective tissue, growths and adhesions, to get rid of which is possible only through surgical intervention.

Another reason hearing loss with otitis media — medical preparation:

  • Gentamicin;
  • Neomycin;
  • salicylates;
  • streptomycin;
  • quinine;
  • some diuretics.

Help. In 50% of cases of hearing loss in children cause of disease are hereditary disease.

Degree of hearing loss

A healthy person needs to hear well the sounds volume 20 dB and less. Under the threshold of hearing imply the smallest volume that can be heard by human ear.

There are 4 degrees of hearing loss:

  1. At the first degree of the hearing threshold is increased to 30 dB.
  2. In the second — up to 50 dB.
  3. In the third to 70 dB.
  4. When fourth — up to 90 dB.

With increasing hearing threshold of 90 dB, diagnosis of deafness. As a rule, the development of the first degrees of hearing loss patients do not pay attention to minor deviations, which subsequently leads to progression of the disease.

Diagnosis

To diagnostic methods that can identify the presence of abnormalities include:

  1. Threshold audiometry — allows you to define the threshold of hearing, to assess the depth of hearing loss on the basis of frequency range.
  2. Cameronia test helps to determine the affected side, and figure out which way the disease spreads (through the air or bones).
  3. Impedance measurements — is carried out to assess the condition of the middle ear, which involves an audible air of excitement, but also control the state of the auditory nerves.

Methods of treatment and correction

Due to the large number of possible causes of hearing loss, treatment for each patient should be individualized. The main task of the physician in the examination, the patient is determining the exact reasons for the development of pathology. The method of treatment is chosen only after establishing all the factors that contribute to hearing loss.

When otosclerosis patients prescribed:

  • sodium fluoride;
  • calcium;
  • bromine;
  • fluorine;
  • vitamins a, b, E.

If the cause of the disease was cerumen, the patient is prescribed the irrigation of the ear with warm water with the addition of diluents. With the progressive development of deafness, surgical intervention is required.

One of the components of integrated treatment are physiotherapy treatments that improve as the General condition of the hearing organ and the whole organism.

There are many physiotherapy treatments. The most common among them are:

  • UHF;
  • paradisaea;
  • iontophoresis;
  • franklinizatsiya;
  • galvanization.
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Folk remedies

The use of traditional medicine can significantly improve the condition of the organs of hearing and their function. Before using any tool, you need to consult a doctor, as a rule, all plants have their contraindications.

Traditional recipes with hearing loss:

  1. 100 g of the branches of blackberries to boil 500 ml of water for 15-20 minutes. After cooling, the medium is instilled into the ears of three drops per day.
  2. Squeeze the juice from the bulbs of the average size and to mix it with the same amount of vodka. The resulting drug is infused into the affected ear before going to sleep for 12 days.
  3. 2 tablespoons of dill and 500 ml of water to prepare a decoction, to insist, strain and drink 100 grams before meals.
  4. Make your own or buy them at the pharmacy almond oil and use it as drops in ears for 10 days.

Prevention

Hearing problems concern not only the elderly but also young people. Hearing loss can develop at any age, and to prevent the occurrence of such problems, it is necessary to know the causes that can lead to hearing impairment and to take appropriate preventive measures.

Prevention should:

  • timely access to specialists if you experience any problems with hearing;
  • not to neglect elementary rules of hygiene;
  • to prevent the development of chronic otitis media.

People working in noisy industries, it is recommended to hold regular preventive examinations.

Especially important is the timely identification of hearing problems in young children, since it is not detected in time hearing loss can lead to a delay of speech. And this, in turn, negatively affects the intellectual development of the baby.