Hearing loss: causes, classification, prevention and treatment
Everything you need to know about hearing impairment and its treatment
Hearing is one of the five senses of man, which enables him to cognize the surrounding world and to react accordingly. Ears and other organs, receiving information from the outside, transfer it to the brain where it is analyzed and interpreted.
But what to do when there are various disorders of hearing, because the person cannot perceive the reality fully. Hearing loss: causes and classification is exactly what will continue it. Also talk more about the treatment of this phenomenon and methods of prevention.
What you need to know about hearing loss
Scientists believe that hearing is the second most used human sense after sight. Conversion of the vibrations of the air sounds quite a complex process, which involves a great many bodies.
So, sound waves through the auditory canal into the eardrum and make it vibrate. Then they move on, bypassing the cochlea and the vestibule window, irritating the auditory cells. The latter transforms the waves into nerve signals sent to the brain, which recognizes them as sounds.
But if for some reason a failure occurs in such an established work, you may have a hearing impairment, to determine which in the early stages of development is difficult because the change that is happening in this case is negligible.
Usually, this trouble is detected when a person begins to feel difficulty in communicating in the form of inability to understand the right words, frequent peresprashivaniya or requests to speak louder.
Important! We could observe what mark the volume you are viewing the TV. In that situation, if the mark from time to time increases, you need to be concerned about your ears.
Violation hearing is also possible in that situation, if there are frequent ear infections and other diseases of the ears. Such inflammation lead to the destruction of components of the perceiving system.
That there is no reaction to the sound waves of a certain frequency, also may indicate a failure occurs. For children age it is considered normal due to the peculiarities of development of the organism, for adult population – is a clear sign of the disease.
Hearing loss – what is it
Hearing loss is a partial or complete deterioration of the hearing system, this person is no longer able to fully detect and perceive sounds.
If there has been a slight deterioration in the perception and understanding of sounds, it is called hearing loss. The complete inability to hear is deafness.
Statistics indicate that hearing loss observed in 11-14% of the population, and this attack often develops in older people:
- 50-60 years — it is marked 19% plagioclase;
- 60-75 years – up to 30% suffering from hearing impairment;
- 75 years – 45 % of people with hearing loss.
This phenomenon is explained by the fact that people in 50 years is a weakening of the perception of high frequencies. Usually hearing loss to sounds high chastotnoi are quite small and do not have appreciable inconveniences.
However, is such that this development does not stop. Along with the deterioration of perception of sounds of high frequency may occur and the lowering of the perception of low frequencies that can threaten deafness.
Help. Lately there is a trend of rapid Molodaya different kinds of hearing impairments.
The culprit of the rapid development of hearing impairment in young people is simple — constantly listening to music at the highest possible volume, especially in headphones. As you know, for many young people is simply a way of life. Of course, without a trace it does not pass and regular mile on the ears leads to hearing impaired and facilitate the emergence of hearing loss.
Causes of hearing loss
Abnormalities in the ear can be radically different in its appearance.
First of all, hearing loss can be congenital and acquired.
Congenital hearing impairment associated with the developmental disabilities system of sensors in one of the three components, and maybe all. This can be attributed to the following factors:
- Birth injuries having a different character.
- Genetic hearing loss.
- Infections that struck a pregnant woman: mumps, influenza, rubella.
- Frequent increase in blood pressure in a pregnant woman.
- Excessive use of different drugs pregnant woman.
- Use during pregnancy of alcohol, drugs and Smoking.
As for acquired hearing impairment, it can be attributed to the following reasons:
- various infection and chronic diseases;
- the injury of the head and ears;
- the influence of loud sounds and abnormal frequency pressure;
- the influence of environmental factors;
- moved chemotherapy may contribute to hearing loss;
- changes due to age. In this case, affected the snail Central nervous system of the ear.
The classification and degree of hearing loss
Scientists divide the degree of hearing loss, depending on lesions of different systems of hearing:
- Sensorineural — mainly affects the inner ear, which is the reception and the transmission of nerve messages.
- Central — appears with the defeat of departments of the ear, responsible for the definition and processing of sounds.
- Conductive — occurs lesions of the outer or middle ear, manifested by mechanical damage.
- Mixed – type of hearing loss that combines a defeat of more than one element.
In addition, hearing loss and deafness can be classified into unilateral and bilateral, and the latter case is the most severe, because the causes of development are much more difficult to resolve due to the nature of origin.
The classification of deafness and hearing loss includes the following 4 degrees of manifestation:
- 1 degree – slight hearing impairment, the hearing threshold at the same time – 26-40 DB. People can understand speech at a distance of 5-6 meters, and the whisper – 3 meters;
- Stage 2 – the ability to understand speech from a distance of 4 meters, and whisper – 1 meter. Hearing threshold – DB 41-56;
- Stage 3 — there is a strengthening of the disease, the hearing threshold — 57 – 71 DB. The person may hear speech from a distance of 2 metres, however, to understand the whispers no longer able;
- 4 degree – conversation at a distance of 1 meter perceived by the person as a whisper, and understand he can not. Sound threshold — 72 – 91 DB.
Help. At 4 degrees a person needs a hearing aid to be able to communicate normally.
If the sound threshold exceeds 92 DB, then diagnosed with total deafness, in which there is the utter impossibility of perception of sound.
Methods for the treatment and correction of hearing impairment
Diseases of the organs of hearing, which have a negative impact on the perception of sounds, in many cases amenable to treatment or correction. Therefore, the detection of these problems need urgently to visit a competent doctor and begin treatment to avoid deterioration.
In the treatment of hearing impairment is primarily assigned to anti-inflammatory medication as well as medicines which stimulate the blood flow.
For elimination of damages performed surgical intervention in the form of various tympanoplasty. The essence of such operations consists in the reestablishment of departments of the ear: eardrum, ossicles, and other components of the organ of hearing.
Also found its application and methodology of physical therapy in the treatment of such disorders. Mostly are exercises in respiratory therapy as well as training of muscular tissues by performing the movements of the cheeks, tongue, or jaws.
Help. In addition to traditional medicine, often for the treatment of disorders of this type are used in various folk remedies. Also in recent years, widespread alternative methods of treatment.
If with traditional medicine we all to some extent familiar, something that also applies to alternative methods of treatment? In this case, this method of treatment includes the following procedures:
- Reflexology — although it has low efficiency, however, its use is justified to eliminate these painful symptoms for patients as the tinnitus.
- Electrical stimulation is indicated for sensorineural hearing loss. This procedure helps to improve the oxygen supply the brain and the regulation of hemodynamics.
- Acoustic stimulation, rendering the effect on the fibers of the auditory nerve. For best results, generally uses a combination of this procedure with intensity not more than 40 DB and the stimulus.
In situations where treatment does not bring positive results, then corrective measures. In modern medicine there are two ways:
- the hearing aid;
- getting a cochlear implant.
Hearing AIDS can solve the problem if other methods are unsuccessful. A typical hearing aid is a device receiver which amplifies the sound. His set consists of speaker, amplifier, microphone, battery. And modern designs can now analyze noise and to cut them, which is many times increases the perceptual quality of sounds and speech.
Hearing implants – the most effective method. They are surgically placed into the middle ear and attached to the auditory ossicles. This makes it possible to convert bone vibrations.
Cochlear implants are prescribed in the withering away of hair receptors. They are injected under the skin, the posting is conducted to the inner ear. This allows you to renew the chain of sound transmission.
Prevention of hearing impairment
The essence of preventive measures of violations of this sort consists of compliance with such rules:
- Hygiene – ears, they should be performed regularly, but not excessively.
- Try by all means to avoid the injury and its consequences.
- Inflammatory diseases of the ear should be treated in the early stages of development, for often the deterioration of the perception of the sound correlated with the impact of otitis.
- The elimination of the consequences of chronic disease and maintaining the body to prevent recurrence.
- Health promotion, because of the weakened protective function of the body contribute to the development of pathologies throughout the body.
Timely prevention of hearing impairment in many situations allows you to maintain a normal perception of sounds.
Human health, as hearing is the real wealth. Respect, compliance with all rules and prevention will allow you to be truly wealthy man.