Hematuria bladder: types, treatments and causes
Hematuria – bladder illness signaled by the appearance of blood in the urine. Hematuria is not an independent disease but rather a signal about presence of any disease of the genitourinary system. Causes of illness can be very diverse: the presence of beets in one eaten before meals or Oncology. Therefore, the detection of blood in the urine should immediately consult a urologist, to undergo appropriate examination to determine the cause and treatment.
The types of hematuria
Hematuria may be temporary or permanent.
Distinguish between these types of pathology:
- ekstremalnaya (not connected in any way with the illness or injury of the kidneys);
- renal (seen on the background malfunction of the kidneys);
- postrenal (occurs when injury of the bladder and urinary tract).
If during the collection of urine blood present in its allocation of the first portion, it says primary hematuria in all 3 portions – of the total, in the last portion – end of hematuria. This gives you the opportunity to say exactly how the affected the urinary system. The later in the urine the presence of blood, the stronger its defeat.
If spotting is present in the urine and a lot of them, you can talk about gross hematuria. As soon as possible to find the cause of pathology and treatment. The microhematuria is the phenomenon when blood in the urine is present in small amounts that can occur after heavy physical exertion. As the treatment recommended rest, and also the maximum reduction of physical activity.
What causes hematuria?
As mentioned above, hematuria can be a signal of some serious pathology. Also, the phenomenon may occur when the enlarged prostate, viral infections, renal non-specific nature; as a reaction to troversial drugs.
The main factors that cause hematuria bladder:
- stones in the bladder and/or renal pelvis;
- the inflammatory process in the seminal vesicles;
- pyelonephritis, glomerulonephritis;
- infection of the urethra and bladder;
- cancerous tumors affecting the bladder, kidney or prostate;
- hemangioma of the kidney;
- damage to the kidneys and urinary tract;
- viral diseases in acute form;
- acute renal failure;
- polycystic kidney;
- the lesions of the kidneys autoimmune complexes;
- tuberculosis of the kidneys and bladder;
- developmental pathology of the kidneys;
- intoxication in the acute form;
- embolism of arteries and veins;
- improper use of the catheter.
What signs indicate hematuria?
Symptoms of hematuria varies depending on the causes. It can be a pain during urination that indicates the presence of inflammation in the bladder, urethra or prostate. Pain in sides of stomach lesion of the ureter or kidney. Pain in the abdomen can be a sign of damage to the ureter or kidney, the presence of malignancy. Hematuria is often accompanied by fever.
If hematuria is combined with failures in urination — this may be a carcinoma of the bladder.
Depending on the disease hematuria can manifest itself:
- in urine present blood clots resembling a worm (kidney bleeding), or large clots, having a specific shape (formed in the bladder);
- pain when passing urine (hemorrhagic cystitis, stones in the bladder, crises uric acid);
- pain in side, lower back and under the scapula (drooping, kidney, inflammation, trauma);
- hematuria is manifested abruptly (glomerulonephritis);
- total hematuria, which is intense, accompanied by weakness, feeling thirsty, dizziness, pallor of the skin;
- hematuria and the allocation of sand or stones (urolithiasis);
- the skin and sclera become yellow green (malfunction of the gallbladder or liver);
- clots brown or light-yellow color, oblong shape (inflammation and injury of the renal parenchyma);
- the inability to urinate as a result of damming the entrance to the urethra, large blood clot (chronic or acute bleeding of the intensive nature in the urinary system).
Hematuria during pregnancy
The appearance of blood in urine during pregnancy can be a consequence of the growth of the uterus and malfunction of kidneys. Such renal disorders caused by excessive pressure on the ureters. Also, the cause of hematuria during pregnancy may be the formation of calculi, or previous inflammation of the kidneys, chronic deficiency of the body.
Hematuria can also occur in patients receiving anticoagulants after their withdrawal symptoms in most cases disappear. Do not ignore the appearance of blood clots in the blood during pregnancy. Access to a doctor will allow you to establish and resolve the cause of this, that will protect the pregnant woman and the fetus from possible danger.
Can cause hematuria in children?
In children hematuria is a hereditary disease caused by the structure of the kidney. If the child has had even a minor pain or urinary retention, and fever, you should immediately contact a doctor and get tested. Hematuria in children may indicate injury to kidney, injury of renal parenchyma, tuberculosis or streptococcal infectious disease, nephropathy.
Diagnosis of hematuria
According to the results of several examinations the doctor can determine the cause of the disease and to choose the necessary treatment.
The appearance of blood in urine recommended to pass the following types of diagnostics:
- General blood and urine tests;
- urine analysis (Nechiporenko);
- urine culture for infection (bacterial analysis);
- blood clotting (biochemical);
- Ultrasound (diagnosis of the genitourinary system);
- intravenous urography;
- the study of red blood cells;
- examination by a gynecologist and proctologist;
- trehstakannoy a urine sample.
For the latter analysis involves the collection of urine of the patient in 3 different capacities. If blood is present in the first portion, it says there are problems in the urethra. The presence of blood in 2 and 3 vessels may be damaged and the neck of the bladder. If spotting is in all 3 tanks — it could be a tumor of the kidneys or bladder, and cancer of the prostate.
To get rid of the hematuria of the bladder, you need to determine and treat the underlying disease which is the cause of such manifestations. To stop bleeding uses drugs. If blood loss is large, requires a special infusion treatment aimed at restoration of blood volume.
Chronic hematuria bladder are appointed b vitamins and preparations of iron in the composition. If the urethra, or the ureter is the stone assigned to the heat treatments and drugs-antispasmodics to ease his way out. If the stone cannot go out on their own, it is zitostaticescoe extraction or surgically removed.
Only emergency surgery will help to repair renal injuries, which are caused by hematoma and avulsion of the renal tissues. High proteinuria, together with hematuria treated with corticosteroids. If hematuria is not a consequence of renal damage, severe, assigned to conservative treatment, including bed rest and hemostatic medicines, and in the presence of inflammation – antibiotics. If there is hematuria, increase the symptoms of anemia and lowered blood pressure — this is the reason for the emergency surgery.
Following the simple guidelines, you can avoid many of the diseases of the urinary tract.
- Toilet paper you need to use from front to back. That protects the urinary opening from contact with intestinal flora.
- Underwear you need to wear loose, not not a practical thing, made from natural fabrics.
- Incontinence need to take care of the timely change of underwear, pads or diapers.
- The issue of personal hygiene must be in first place. Better to wash with just clean water without the use of lotions and sprays and other means. To preserve the natural balance the care of intimate areas should be regular but not too frequent.
- To avoid hypothermia in the winter, especially to prevent the legs and feet.
- To avoid indiscriminate sex, which is fraught with sexual transmission of infections.
In most cases, the hematuria of the bladder – simple disease that passes after treatment. Depending on the causative agent of a bacterial infection, effective treatment specific antibiotic drugs. Therapy is prescribed by a doctor individually for each patient, depending on the causes of the disease, symptoms and results of the survey. Do not delay visit to the doctor. Timely treatment will help to get rid of unpleasant symptoms.