Neurogenic bladder: causes, symptoms and treatment
Neurogenic bladder is a multi-component concept that includes many different dysfunctions in the normal functioning of the bladder. This phenomenon cannot be considered as a separate, independent disease, as usually, neurogenic bladder dysfunction means a comprehensive urinary organ, United with the root cause of the problems in certain parts of the nervous system, which is responsible for the function of arbitrary urination.
The concept of neurogenic bladder
In modern medicine the term neurogenic bladder is a collective disruption of the functioning of the urinary tract subsequently serious damage to certain parts of the nervous system. The essence of such a dysfunction lies in the fact that the process is arbitrary urination ceases to be controlled by cortical centers of the brain, driving only the spinal cord. Such damage to the nervous system may be congenital or acquired. Pathology is equally common in children and adults, men and women.
The syndrome of neurogenic bladder can be divided into two main forms:
- Hyperactive – for this shape characteristic is enhanced, reducing overactive bladder, urinary subsequently, the body simply can not keep the collected urine. Accordingly, immediately after the receipt of even a small amount of liquid it spontaneously displayed outside. In the majority of cases, the cause of development of hyperactive forms of the disease is a violation of the part of the nervous system over the bridge of the brain.
- Hypotonic is the opposite of hyperactive form of the disease, which is characterized by extremely weak contraction of the bladder walls, or even complete absence of contractions. As a result, urine is not completely excreted from the internal organ and there is such a thing as residual urine.
Causes of neurogenic bladder
Today highlighted the many factors that may cause the development of neurogenic bladder.
- Inflammatory, neoplastic and infectious diseases affecting the brain or spinal cord – as they are certain parts, and shell. The diseases most often include encephalitis, neuritis, strokes, Parkinson’s disease, herniated discs.
- Prolonged exposure to stress, severe emotional disorder, which adversely affects the condition of the nervous system, which subsequently develops pathology.
- Inflammatory or destructive disease of the bladder, urinary tract or urethra, which is accompanied by dysfunction of the sphincter apparatus.
- If similar pathology is observed in children, most often we are talking about congenital, inherited defect in the structure of the internal organs or certain parts of the nervous system.
- Neurogenic bladder in men and women can result from traumatic injuries, brain and spinal cord – the spinal fracture, squeezing, heavy surgical intervention.
The main symptoms of bladder dysfunctions and the urinary tract depend on the shape of the disease. Overactive neurogenic bladder has the following symptoms:
- For this form of the disease are characterized by increased urination. At the same time, while going to the toilet, as a rule, is allocated the minimum amount of urine, or she never leaves, despite all the attempts of women or men.
- Hypertonicity of the urinary organ, which may be accompanied by strong pain in the lower abdomen.
- Frequent urge to the toilet, which is particularly disturbed in the night. The norm is not urinating more than 2 times per night. If a person gets up in the toilet more than 2 times per night, one can speak of a neurogenic bladder.
- Urination occur abruptly and have an intense severity in some cases is so intense that people just don’t have time to walk to the toilet. The result is urinary incontinence.
The main signs of hypotonic neurogenic bladder:
- For this form of the disease characterized by low activity of the urinary organ, or the complete absence of contractions of its walls. Subsequently, people may feel that the bladder is full, but urine does not occur.
- The patient completely lacks the ability in any conscious way to control the process of urination. These symptoms lead to serious problems in the sphere of social life.
Treatment of bladder disease
Treatment of neurogenic bladder in men and women should begin with treatment of the underlying cause of disease. Accordingly, in most cases, the illness must be treated by a neurologist, neurosurgeon, or urologist. Treatment of urogenital diseases may be both medical and operational. So, if the cause of bladder dysfunction were the various mechanical trauma, tumors or disease to the brain or spinal cord, the necessary treatment pathology appointed by the neurosurgeon. Tumors removed surgically in a specialized medical institution.
In frequent cases, the main causes of the syndrome of neurogenic urinary on be prolonged stress or nervous shock. In such situations, the treatment should start with the correction of the psychological state of a person – an invaluable aid will have a therapist.
If the patient has hypotonic form of neurogenic bladder with the necessary medical assistance in the process of urination. For this purpose the production of the urethral catheter. The installation of a catheter can be both short term and long term.
But many experts believe that an overactive neurogenic bladder is much better treatable than hypotonic. In most cases, traditional treatment, including medication, which is aimed at maximum relaxation of the muscle fibers of the internal organ and improving the blood supply.
Excellent results can be obtained by complementing the treatment of disorders of the urinary organ physiotherapy (iontophoresis, ultrasound, magnetic therapy, electrical stimulation), therapeutic exercise consisting of regular exercises to train the muscular apparatus of the pelvic organs.
Treatment of neurogenic bladder will be much more efficient with strict adherence to proper diet and drinking regime. Such patients should fully exclude from your menu salt, smoked, spicy or acidic foods that may negatively affect the functioning of the genitourinary system. You should also carefully monitor the amount of fluid, plenty of rest and sleep. And then the treatment will be much more efficient and more effective.