Papilloma: treatment, removal, symptoms, causes
Papilloma is very common among all benign tumors of the human is the most common. Probably will not find those who’ve never heard or faced at least once in your life. Being a benign process, it nonetheless may take the character of lesions to recur and deliver serious discomfort, appearing on visible areas of the skin. Papillomatosis genital mutilation poses a threat of infection to sexual partners, and hampers the sexual life and childbirth can easily be transmitted from mother to newborn baby.
The tumor have long been known and are described in the works of the ancient healers, but the real reason for it became clear relatively recently. Possibilities of modern medicine has allowed to establish the viral nature of papillomas, and in this connection it became possible to explain the nature of the disease, often multiple and recurrent. In addition, the infectious nature explains the wide distribution of tumors among the population and the possibility of infection through contacts with infected patients.
Scientists have found that the reason for the growth of papillomas often becomes a virus, favorable conditions for the life which is in the flat epithelium of the skin and the genital tract. The virus is so widespread that it is considered uninfected only one person out of ten. However, papillomas are detected not all. This fact is due to the long inactive carrier state of infection which years stored in the body in «sleep» state, but under unfavorable circumstances, the virus begins to actively proliferate and provoke the growth of tumors.
The disease affects people of all ages, but most often affects elderly persons who have been gradually decreasing the protective immune response, and infection entering the active phase. A special group of children and newborn babies papillomatosis can occur after birth if the mother was infected with viral infection of the genital tract.
Favorite localization of papillomas is considered the skin of the face, neck, axillary and inguinal folds, as well as the genitals in women and men. In addition to papillomas, the virus is prone to cause the growth of such formations, as warts are not cancer, but can very to resemble in appearance, so we’ll mention is also slightly lower.
Why do I have HPV?
Tumor growth is usually associated with many reasons, mutual combination of which leads to the appearance of tumors. The main factor papillomatosis is the human papillomavirus, which includes more than a hundred varieties. Benign tumors often provoke the so-called neochanna strains of microorganism and viruses of low oncogenicity. In other words, a malignancy with such a viral infection is unlikely, but still possible.
The presence of warts on the genitals reflects the inflammatory process against the background of infection with the virus 6 and 11, when the expansion of the superficial epithelial layer to the underlying tissue, looks very much like a tumor. Often to distinguish warts from HPV it is impossible to the naked eye, and this may require a study of the lesion under a microscope. The resemblance warts papillomas, recurrent nature of the flow and the possibility of malignancy allow to consider them within benign neoplastic process, and for treatment and does apply the same methodology.
Once ingested, the virus is introduced into cells of the squamous epithelium and indefinitely there is, does not prove itself. The person may not even be aware of the presence of such infections unless there is a background for the propagation of the virus and growth of tumors. Among the adverse factors causing the growth of tumors, you can specify:
- Chronic stress, excessive nervous and physical stress, vitamin deficiency;
- Bad habits (Smoking, alcohol abuse);
- Reduction of immune forces of organism;
- Old age;
- Promiscuous with frequent change of sexual partners;
- The presence of other diseases – obesity, endocrine disorders, pathology of the digestive system;
- Long-term use of oral contraceptives, anticancer agents and immunosuppressants.
The incubation period lasts about one year, and in good body condition and a high level of immune protection, you can count on the fact that the infection did not show. However, the wonderful health boasts not everyone, so sooner or later appear on the skin of papillary growths, called papillomas.
The ways of spreading of infection varied:
To avoid infection at least one species of virus is unlikely, but keep in mind the possibility of infection with the use of General hygiene products, as well as in the bath, the sauna or the pool. There is a risk of infection when visiting beautician, manicure or pedicure.
A particular danger of laryngeal papillomatosis developing in children when infected during childbirth. This form of tumor is difficult to therapy and threat to serious complications, including choking with the defeat of the vocal folds. In the presence of the disease in a pregnant woman’s treatment must be resolved before delivery, and in case of impossibility or inefficiency of the doctor will be forced to resort to cesarean section.
Originating in one area of the skin, the virus can easily spread to others, so often you can observe loose nature of tumor growth. Older persons papillomavirus can spread throughout the body surface. Papillomas and condylomas can be detected not only in skin but also in the mouth or on the tongue or the tonsils, in the cervix or vagina, the urethra, so do not be surprised if the dermatologist will refer the patient with such entities to the gynecologist, dentist, ENT specialist, urologist, dealing with treatment of diseases of these organs.
After learning about the impressive list of reasons and possibilities of Contracting a viral infection, do not panic. First, the vast majority of people already infected, and secondly, you can live for decades without knowing of the existence of the virus, if you lead a healthy lifestyle and careful to your body.
Signs of HPV
The tumor has a rather distinctive appearance, so suspect it is easy, even a cursory examination of the patient’s skin. It can be single or multiple, flat, on a broad base or a thin stalk, in the form of cauliflower or mushroom. Most often, a papilloma is a kind of soft knot, towering above the skin surface, pale pink color, with papillary surface.
Microscopically, the papilloma is a redundant proliferation of stratified squamous epithelium with a subject layer, and in tumor cells, even when light microscopy can detect indirect signs of activity of the virus.
Depending on the characteristics of the structure, dermatologists there are several varieties of tumor:
- Simple papilloma – growths in the form of cauliflower or cockscomb, the surface of which resembles small papillae;
- Flat papilloma, often localized in the cervical epithelium, and the skin resembles a flat nodules, prone to redness, pain, itching;
- Plantar papilloma, which can be called a wart, delivers significant discomfort;
- Filiform papillae – usually affects persons older than 50 years, resemble small nodules are flesh-colored, occur most often asymptomatic;
- Genital warts – in fact, are warts, that is an inflammatory response to viral infection, but looks like a tumor, growing in the form of a cauliflower can become inflamed, and cause itching and burning sensation, tend to recur.
In most cases of papilloma of the skin, even when common growth pattern, do not deliver serious concern to patients, but the finding of a tumor on the face or in the genital tract can create significant psychological discomfort, aesthetic disturbances, difficulty sexual life. Symptoms of tumors are possible:
The location of the tumor in areas of friction parts of clothing, on the face of men in areas subjected to shaving, as well as in the genital tract increases the risk of injury, papilloma, followed a severe inflammation. Chronic injury tumors may set the stage for malignancy.
Diagnosis of papillomas is not much difficulty, this is a simple inspection of a dermatologist, gynecologist or urologist. To confirm the viral nature of the disease may require more complex and expensive procedures of PCR to detect DNA of the pathogen and clarify the type of virus. For genital papillomatosis, the doctor will offer to examine smears from the cervix, urethra, to get tested for other sexually transmitted infections, and better diagnosis from both sexual partners.
In cases of multiple tumor growth may need to study the function of internal organs, endocrine system, immune status of the patient.
Treatment of papilloma
Most papillomas are superficial, are available for inspection places, so many patients are striving to rid themselves of tumors with the help of thread, hair, tying up, pulling out or cutting off the tumor. Such manipulation is highly fraught with complications, so its better to avoid them, and to entrust treatment to a specialist. With self removal of warts at home without medical examination of the patient can not be sure that the tumor is indeed a papilloma, and therefore, the risk of the presence of malignant potential are not excluded. In addition, the probability of the inflammatory process and recurrence is very high, so do not self medicate under any circumstances.
The most effective way of dealing with the papilloma, as with any other tumor, is considered the deletion method which chooses a doctor based on the size, localization, education, individual patient characteristics and desires. Sometimes when a single small tumor size can be limited to observation and conservative therapy designed to strengthen the immune system, but if multiple papillomas and new, located in areas subject to mechanical stress (friction of clothes, for example), it is better to get rid of them. The indication for treatment may also be a cosmetic defect, especially if the tumor is in the head, on the face.
To date, various approaches for the treatment of papillomas:
- Surgical removal;
- Laser treatment;
- Removal using radiologe;
Surgical removal of the papilloma is the most radical and the most reliable way, but used less because the volume of the removed tissue can be quite large, and will result in scarring. A cosmetic effect can not be called good, and healing period can last for weeks. This method is used in cases where other, more gentle methods are ineffective or impractical: for large tumors (more than 1cm), the probability of malignant transformation of cells and recurrence. Typically, the surgeon removes the tumor within healthy tissues, and then puts a suture. The procedure is performed under local anesthesia. The apparent advantage of a surgical approach is the possibility of histological examination of the removed tissue tumors and precise diagnosis.
Cryosurgery involves the impact on the fabric of liquid nitrogen at the temperature -196 degrees, the water in tumor cells freezes and they die. The method is applicable only when absolute confidence in the purity of the tumors, as after the removal of the remains of tissue that can be examined under a microscope. The effectiveness of the procedure is about 60%, it is painless, but as the destruction of tumor cells possible swelling of the surrounding tissues and pain.
The healing lasts about a week, during which the doctor may advise you to handle place of cryotherapy solution of potassium permanganate or other antiseptic and antiviral drug. The disadvantages of this method of removal can be considered as a weak freezing, leading to relapse, and too strong, resulting in damage to the surrounding tissues and the appearance of the scar. In addition, cryosurgery is ineffective when condylomatosis genitals.
Electrocoagulation is based on the removal of the tumor with electric current. Efficiency reaches 95%, and marks on the skin, usually do not remain. When electrocautery eliminated the base of the tumor or its leg, and the tissue neoplasm may be directed to histological examination, which can be considered an advantage. Disadvantages associated with the possibility of recurrence of papillomas with insufficient volume effects and soreness, especially in papillomas of the genital organs.
Laser treatment is considered to be one of the most modern and effective ways of dealing with warts. Because after laser treatment papilloma is removed, the confirmation of high quality of the process need to before the procedure. The laser heats the water in the cells of the tumor, it evaporates, and with it perish the elements of the neoplasm. Redness and swelling of the surrounding skin that can last up to several days, are considered a normal reaction and should not be afraid of them. Healing and restoration of the skin lasts about two weeks, but the tender tissue in the affected area should be protected from sunlight, otherwise pigmentation. If removed papillomas in the face, then apply makeup until complete healing also should not be.
With a laser you can quickly remove the tumor without skin defects after healing, however in case of large tumors is still possible scars, and the inadequate intensity of the used light can be due to burning.
Removal using radiologa is using the apparatus of radiowave therapy Surgitron. Significant advantages of this treatment is considered painless and quick procedure, when the tumor in different parts of the body, including the cervix and the genitals of both women and men. After treatment no scars are left, recurrence is virtually eliminated, and the removed tumor can be subjected to histological examination. Radio wave therapy can rightly be considered one of the best ways of treatment.
Sometimes to get rid of HPV, suggesting the local effect of the chemical compounds that cause necrosis of neoplasms. This treatment acids and other active substances is fraught with skin burns and the risk of recurrence in this case is quite large so have resorted to it rarely. However, for example, the presence of warts the genital organs, may well be an indication for such therapy. Warts can be coated with drugs solkoderm, kondilin or solution of resorcinol, after which the cells are dying, and education disappear.
The choice of treatment of the tumor is often determined by its localization. So, papillomas on the body can be removed from all of the above ways, but most often use cryotherapy, which is the most affordable, including the cost of the procedure. For large warts the only possible method of treatment remains surgical removal.
A particular challenge can be neoplasms of the skin on the face, eyelids, neck. On the face of the tumor inconvenience mainly for cosmetic effect, and the requirements to the results of treatment are not confined to the radical operations, but also to the appearance of the skin after therapy. Preference is given to techniques which can remove the tumor without scarring (radiosurgery, laser treatment, cryosurgery). Choosing the method of treatment tumor tissue, the physician must be very careful that the surrounding skin is not affected.
For centuries education can carry multiple in nature, and their treatment is best left to an experienced professional who will be very careful, acting on the delicate skin of the eyelids.
Papillomas on the neck are fairly common, particularly in individuals older generation. This is due to a decrease in immune defenses with aging. Many patients live for years with such papillomas, however, keep in mind the fact that the injury to their clothes or ornaments could lead not only to inflammation, but also with malignancy, so it is best such tumors to remove, and in parallel, to conduct a General tonic and antiviral therapy.
Papillomas and warts of the genital organs should be treated necessarily, regardless of their number and localization. The method of choice is considered radiowave therapy, which allows to achieve complete tumor removal without subsequent scarring and damage to healthy tissue. In addition, in men with superficial lesions can be used chemical methods of combating the disease. From cryoablation should be abandoned and surgical removal is used for large tumors that cannot be removed by other, more gentle ways.
The appearance of papillomas, especially multiple, is always a sign of trouble in the body, so along with mechanical tumor removal is necessary and other activities:
Most often, the growth of papillomas manifested with stress, reduced immunity, diseases of internal organs (gastrointestinal tract, liver, kidneys), so avoid nervous stress and in a timely manner to treat the already existing disease. The patient should stop Smoking and alcohol abuse, obesity to normalize the weight. In case of concomitant endocrine pathology it is necessary to consult an endocrinologist.
Human papillomavirus infection of the cervix can lead to the development of cancer, therefore, to prevent such defeats, women are offered vaccination. Better if it is performed before onset of sexual activity or, at least, before the meeting with the virus.
A special category of patients are pregnant women who have low immunity, often the activation of existing in the cells of the virus, so doctors are not surprising fact is the emergence in this period of genital warts and papillomas at other sites, even if before pregnancy a woman is never faced with such entities. Watchful waiting in such cases is not justified, since active viral infection at birth can be passed to the child and cause serious injury to respiratory tract.
Treatment of pregnant women is hampered by the impossibility of application of a number of drugs and techniques, but it is better to conduct during the second trimester of pregnancy, and the preference should be given laser or radio wave influence, because acid for local applications or drugs for pain relief can be hazardous to the health of the unborn baby. Perhaps the appointment of local interferon drugs when the warts of the genital tract, but only under the supervision of a physician.
There are many folk methods, which promise to get rid of the tumor. So, patients are widely used celandine, the juice of which should lubricate the education to their disappearance. In the Internet you can find recipes of tinctures of walnuts on kerosene, treatments castor oil and even egg, but it is worth mentioning that alternative medicine is not only a guaranteed cure, but can lead to complications of the tumor, including malignancy.
As you know, any disease is easier to prevent than to cure, so when the first signs of papilloma virus infection should immediately go to the doctor. Particular caution should be exercised in families where there are patients with condylomatous genital tract and oral cavity: it is necessary to use individual towels, shaving supplies, bath sponges, utensils. A pregnant woman needs to take care for a safe delivery in a timely manner to treat HPV or genital warts.
Of course, to avoid infection with the virus is unlikely, and almost everyone has faced in their life at least once with the manifestations of the disease, but a healthy lifestyle, good nutrition, high levels of hygiene and barrier methods of contraception largely prevent infection, activation of viral infection and growth of tumors.