Stage of cancer, degree: 1,2,3,4, early, elementary, weather

Most people in the detection of any tumors first the question of its malignancy. And if the answer is disappointing, and natural interest regarding the spread of the cancer process, because everyone knows that the stage of the cancer determine the treatment, which can be very painful, and the prognosis, which threatens to be unfavourable.

A variety of neoplastic processes that can take its origin in the human body, it is impossible to consider in one view. It can be completely different tumors with inherent characteristics, United by one concept – evil. Besides, malignancy isn’t always about the emergence, reproduction and journey into the body «bad» cells. For example, malignant basal cell carcinoma shows no tendency to metastasize, so this cancer at early stage can be completely cured, that is, the concept of «good» and «evil» in this context is very relative. A major role for determining the future good or bad prospects play stage of the cancer, which, as one of the main indicators used in the classification of cancer.

Classification and prognosis

Neoplastic processes that can emerge in the body, can vary greatly between morphological characteristics and preferences of a particular tissue, the ability to metastasize, clinical course and prognosis, although they often combined into one word — a cancer that is a malignant tumor of epithelial tissue. Supporting the «evil» cancer of other origin processes have other names.

Thus, the basis of classification of malignant tumors are taking different (fixed) characteristics of the neoplastic process:

  • Morphological features of tumor (its type, degree of malignancy);
  • The localization of the primary tumor;
  • The size of the tumor, its growth rate;
  • The ability of this type of neoplasia to metastasis.

Стадии рака, степени: 1,2,3,4, ранняя, начальная, прогноз

TMN classification on the example of the thyroid gland

International classification (TNM — tumor, nodus, metastasis) of malignant tumors of the voluminous and mostly incomprehensible to man, far from the terminology of the fundamental Sciences of medicine, but by forming groups of tumors, it primarily focuses on the prognosis of cancer in various stages, and the stages are determined by:

  • The prevalence of the primary tumor at the time of its detection (T);
  • The reactions of the regional lymph nodes (N);
  • The presence or absence of distant metastases (M).
  • In addition, each tumor process (including localization) can be classified according to certain parameters:

    • Clinical signs (clinical classification), that is, according to the data obtained using different diagnostic methods;
    • On the basis of the pathological characteristics of the tumor determined by histological examination;
    • Depending on the histopathological differentiation (poorly differentiated tumors are more dangerous and «meaner», they quickly germinate in the surrounding tissue and metastasize to distant organs).

    All these questions of classification are very complex for the layman, patients are also increasingly interested in what is the prognosis for cancer of a specific localization depending on the stage of the process, it is obvious that different morphologically arranged tumor will behave differently in the body. In this regard, cancer is perceived, perhaps, as the most reliable prognostic criterion not only doctors, but also patients.

    All depends on the stage

    Without delving into the numerous classification characteristics, let’s consider the close variants of the prognosis for various forms of neoplasia, depending on the stage. There are five of them:

    0 stage

    Stage 0 cancer includes tumors of any localization. Border cancer zero stage does not move forward the boundaries of epithelium, which gave rise to the tumor. An example of stage 0 can serve as carcinoma in situ – non-invasive (from time to time) epithelial tumor. With timely diagnosis and adequate treatment of such a cancer can be completely cured.

    Stage 1

    At this stage the cancer is in search of a place slowly expanding its borders, however, does not go away and distant organs are not striking. The only exception is stomach cancer, which at the first stage metastasizes to the lymph nodes. Basically, the prognosis for this stage is favorable, the patient can expect healing, the main thing is early diagnosis and immediate action for the elimination of the tumor.

    Stage 2

    Stage 2 is not only the progression of the process in the primary focus, but also the beginning of metastasis to lymph nodes (regional). The prognosis of cancer 2 degrees depends on the type and location of the tumor.

    Стадии рака, степени: 1,2,3,4, ранняя, начальная, прогноз

    stage of cancer-for example, tumors of the intestines/esophagus, stage 4 formed OTDELENIE metastases

    Stage 3

    There has been further progression of the disease, infiltration of cancer in the lymph nodes are obvious, but distant metastases are not yet available, an encouraging factor for extending the life of the patient. The survival rate for cancer is also stage 3 for each of the tumor – its. Plays the role of location, type, degree of differentiation of neoplasm, General condition of the patient and other factors that exacerbate the disease or, conversely, help to prolong life.

    On the question of whether cancer is curable stage 3, the answer is rather negative, even in the absence of obvious distant metastases, the malignancy has already taken power over the human body, so count on a long and happy life in cancer 3 degrees is not necessary. The life expectancy of the patient depends entirely on the extent of the evil brought by the tumor.

    Stage 4

    Stage 4 is the terminal stage of cancer. The affected organ, lymph nodes, metastases to distant organs. However, it should be noted that stage 4 cancer can be diagnosed in the absence of distant metastases. Common, fast-growing primary tumors or tumors of small size, which affects the lymph nodes, also sometimes referred to 4 stages of malignant process. This also classifies some poorly differentiated tumors and undifferentiated thyroid cancer, regardless of tumor size and regional lymph node status, but with detection of distant metastases. Cure cancer 4 stage is in great doubt, or rather, is excluded altogether, even if completely destroy the primary tumor, distant metastases will also be «eat a man».

    Thus, cancer at initial stage can be destroyed at the root by active actions of oncologists, and cure of cancer stage 4 is basically impossible. The claim that someone somewhere was able to cure a cancer of 4 degrees soda, folk remedies, or even in some unconventional way, often are an advertising course of various charlatans and have no reason, and people who have won a cancer of 4 degrees and is able to support or refute the pseudo-scientific arguments, unfortunately, do not exist. Otherwise, this is another disease that a patient was mistakenly taken as cancer.

    For each tumor – your forecast

    To describe the stage of all tumors is not only difficult but impossible. Meanwhile, should try to familiarize the reader with the symptoms of cancer in the initial stage of tumors, which can detect the patient (surface types) as well as course and prognosis of the most common neoplastic process, localized in the main human organs.

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    Cancer on the surface

    Localized on the skin and visible mucous cancer at early stages can be suspected by the individual himself if he is inclined to carefully monitor their health.

    Skin cancer first appears a small speck or knot, especially not cause anxiety. If for a long time, it does not disappear, does not go away from the use of various pharmaceutical and folk remedies, the patient is better to immediately consult a doctor for an explanation of the origin of the strange and unusual skin items.

    Стадии рака, степени: 1,2,3,4, ранняя, начальная, прогноз

    skin tumors: 1 and the mole, 2 — dysplasia nevus (moles), 3 — senile keratosis, is a 4 — squamous cell carcinoma, 5 — basal cell carcinoma, 6 with melanoma

    The initial stage of tongue cancer in most cases asymptomatic, but painful cracks, sores, erosion, compaction should be cause for concern in terms of the development of oncological process.

    Стадии рака, степени: 1,2,3,4, ранняя, начальная, прогноз

    leukoplakia, papillomatosis, erosive changes of mucosa are the most common pre-cancerous condition

    Стадии рака, степени: 1,2,3,4, ранняя, начальная, прогноз

    lip cancer in the initial stage

    Lip cancer occurs not so often, suffer more smokers or people annoying the other way. Cancer symptoms (non-healing of cracks, sores, peeling, in General, everything that should not be there) is not as painful for the patient, so he quickly ran to the doctor, and in vain, because the cancer is in the initial stage can be cured. In the future it will be very difficult to do.

    With the symptoms of inflammation occurs the initial stage of throat cancer, so patients, all blamed on the usual manifestations of a chronic disease and, as a rule, the doctor is not in a hurry.

    Neoplastic processes, which found a place on the tongue, lips, throat, United by one disease, cancer of the oral cavity.

    Rapid growth and high aggression — lung cancer

    Fast growing, very malignant and very common tumors, carrying annually thousands of (mainly men’s) lives. Correct, this definition primarily applies to lung cancer, in which growth is ahead of neoplasia at other sites and in a short time reaches the last stage, resulting in human-to-bedside.

    In the first stage of lung cancer tumor size usually does not reach 3 cm, «place of birth» (segment) the tumor does not leave signs of their presence practically does not give. Any manifestation in the form of cough, shortness of breath, chest pain, patients may associate with the presence of other diseases such as chronic bronchitis. Meanwhile, early diagnosis of cancer with active treatment in the first stage gives relatively high survival rate (80%).

    Стадии рака, степени: 1,2,3,4, ранняя, начальная, прогноз

    The second stage also tend to masquerade as relative prosperity, but the dimension of the hearth is doubled (to 6 cm). The neoplastic process remains within the lobe of the lung, but is beginning to «show interest» to nearby lymph nodes, dissipating single metastases. Cough, sputum production (sometimes with blood), pain, fever, signs of intoxication, again reminiscent of the aggravation of long flowing chronic diseases of bronchopulmonary system. It usually confuses the patient is confused, so he did not go to the doctor, thereby losing precious time. But the combination of chemo — and radiotherapy radical treatment provides a survival rate in cancer 2 degrees up to 50%. As the saying goes, fifty-fifty, and it’s a lot.

    For the third stage of the malignant process in the lungs characterized further growth of the tumor, which is larger than 6 cm and, striking a light, metastasizes to nearby lymph nodes.

    The last stage (fourth) has a large tumor in the left border of the lung, who seized the nearby organs, and settled metastases through lymph and blood vessels throughout the body. End-stage cancer leaves the patient with only a few months of life. The body destroyed by tumor, existing treatments useless or can only relieve suffering, but not to improve the condition of really. Cure for cancer stage 4 can only dream of, and people who beat cancer 4 degrees, can be found only on questionable Internet forums… But this has already been mentioned earlier.

    The subject of special attention for breast cancer

    Often cancer at early stage are able to «catch» the lesions of the mammary gland (mg). The best diagnostician in this case is the woman or (sometimes) her husband. This is because the female breast is not only on serving for feeding the baby. It is the object of adoration and admiration from the opposite sex, so the attitude to it is very reverent, and the attention increased. Meanwhile, not all and not always succeed to find the primary lesion, and to cope with carcinoma in situ (non-invasive epithelial tumor), some of the disease goes through all the stages of breast cancer:

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    Стадии рака, степени: 1,2,3,4, ранняя, начальная, прогноз

    characteristic of cancerous and precancerous breast changes that are worth paying attention to

    • Zero stage – carcinoma in situ (intraductal tumor, lobular carcinoma, Paget’s disease) – preinvasiva form, giving all the chances for complete healing.
    • The first stage of breast cancer: the tumor is small, its diameter does not exceed 2 cm, it still has not sprouted and especially not given the metastatic growth forecast, of course, favorable.
    • Second stage: the size of tumors in cancer 2 degrees is in the range of 2-5 cm, the tumor started to seize additional territory, sprouting in the surrounding tissue, and metastasize to lymph nodes.
    • The seriousness of the third stage lies not only in tumor growth, its infiltration into the surrounding tissue and nearby lymph nodes, but also in the migration of cancer cells to distant organs. Even in the radical treatment of evil can lay low, and 10-15 years (this can be life expectancy for cancer of the breast 3 degrees) to remind myself to have been fatal, so stage 3 cancer considered incurable.
    • For stage four breast cancer primary tumor size does not matter. The worst thing in cancer 4 degrees is that tumor growth is fully captured by the lymphatic system «occupied» chest and spread to the whole body in the form of metastases in distant organs. Cure for cancer stage 4 is impossible by any means, because scattered «evil» is not to collect all the tissues of the body. Radiation and chemotherapy may for a while delay the neoplastic growth, but not for long – in cancer 4 stage live from to 3 years.

    Стадии рака, степени: 1,2,3,4, ранняя, начальная, прогноз

    stage breast cancer

    By the way, cancer of the breast does not exclude males, however, this happens very, very rarely.

    A purely female problems

    The most vulnerable spot the main reproductive organ of women

    Significantly «rejuvenated» in recent years, uterine cervical tumors, associated with proliferation of human papillomavirus infection (HPV). Meanwhile, there is a high probability of detection of neoplastic process at the stage of its origin, and in other stages of this type of cancer is relatively well diagnosed. Thus, before becoming a real cervical cancer, tumor development goes through several stages:

    • Стадии рака, степени: 1,2,3,4, ранняя, начальная, прогнозPrecancerous conditions of the cervix – dysplasia, treatable, if the time to appeal, but in the last degree (CIN III), it is difficult to distinguish cytological method from carcinoma in situ, which is one step away from dysplasia and 3 is a zero stage of tumor process. Histological examination capable of detecting infestation, admirably with the task, which gives the opportunity not only to recognize but also to cure the tumor.
    • Stage 0 – carcinoma in situ. The prognosis is favorable, when the early diagnosis of this cancer can be cured in 100% of cases.
    • Primarily a favorable prognosis is noted in the first stage of the cancer, because the tumor grew up to approximately 4-5 cm, still within the boundaries of the epithelium of the main reproductive organ.
    • In the second stage of the malignant process leaves the uterus, but it does not touch adjacent organs, the Outlook remains encouraging.
    • The third stage. Tumor «takes root» in the surrounding tissue, thereby markedly degrading a forecast
    • The last stage, the fourth. Cancer «crossed the line», has grown into the organs of the excretory (urinary bladder) and digestive (rectum) of a system, the metastases have reached distant organs. Surgical treatment will not help to calm the woman nothing, the doctors can only try to alleviate the suffering of the patient.

    Стадии рака, степени: 1,2,3,4, ранняя, начальная, прогноз

    stage cervical cancer

    The prognosis of cervical cancer, as with other tumours depends on the stage. Of considerable importance and such factors as form of cancer and degree of differentiation of malignancy (the higher the degree, the more chances of survival).

    The main «killer» of Oncology

    Ovarian cancer, having a lot of forms and types, is considered the most adverse and uncontrollable oncological process of the female genitalia. Most common variety is recognized as a tumor of glandular tissue of the ovary adenocarcinoma, characterized by cruelty and aggression. The insidiousness of ovarian cancer is in the fact that it presents special difficulties in diagnosis. Existing symptoms well-grounded in manifestations of chronic gynecological diseases (adnexitis, hysteromyoma, etc.). However, some signs should alert a woman:

  • causeless weight loss without dieting and exercise;
  • progressive enlargement of the abdomen (fluid accumulation in abdominal cavity – ascites);
  • indigestion.
  • Стадии рака, степени: 1,2,3,4, ранняя, начальная, прогноз

    Ovarian cancer, like other tumors, has 4 stages:

  • The «birth» of a cancer cell, the development process within one ovary. The appearance of ascites is the first stage of the cancer, which gives some hope for its early diagnostics and life extension of 5 years at 80% of the patients (of course, combining surgical treatment with other methods).
  • In the second stage affects both of the ovary, peritoneum, fallopian tubes and uterus. Expanding belly (ascites) with a total weight loss tells the woman about the development of bad disease, the prognosis is of course worse.
  • The third stage already is not difficult in the diagnosis, problems can be detected during a regular pelvic examination. The survival rate for cancer stage 3 low live five years has a chance of only one in ten women out of a hundred.
  • For stage 4 cancer is characterized by the distribution of metastases throughout the body, but most often they can be found in the lungs and liver. On the cure of cancer stage 4 may not be out of the question, survival is reduced to zero.
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    The forecast may not be the same for everyone, it is impossible in General to talk about the stage of the cancer and the prospects for life, because in each case takes into account other factors: histological features of the tumor, age of patient, condition of other organs. Someone can fight longer, and someone for the first months.

    Gastrointestinal tract

    Esophageal cancer

    Esophageal cancer refers to malignant and aggressive neoplastic processes. It grows rapidly, metastasizes early, difficult and painful in the diagnosis and treatment has a very poor prognosis.Стадии рака, степени: 1,2,3,4, ранняя, начальная, прогноз

    This cancer at early stage can mislead its owner the absence of any specific symptoms. Difficulty swallowing, recurrent spasms, podergivani during the food a person overcomes with the help of liquid. Washed down the food with water — everything seems to be passed, you can continue to live in peace, so a visit to the doctor is constantly postponed. And, indeed, bad thoughts rarely visit. However, if you detect the disease in its first stage, quick to take action, you can count to five (or even more) years of life.

    Symptoms of esophageal cancer is increasing with the development of the tumor, which passes through the same stages as other cancers (with invasion and metastasis). Worsen the prognosis.

    3-4 stages is already changing voice, growing dysphagia, appears intermittently esophageal vomiting, chest constantly worried about something, the patient loses weight, loses its ability to work. The survival rate for cancer stage 3 is low, when active treatment benefit approximately 25% of patients, but distant metastasis, some perspective is only half of them.

    When stage 4 cancer patients live almost six months, and a full life it is hardly.

    The leader for the second number

    Leading positions in incidence and mortality still holds stomach cancer, the second place it moves only lung cancer, recognized worldwide as the invincible «enemy of all times and peoples». The abundance of carcinogens, bad habits, genetic predisposition, carrier H. pylori infection – factors contributing to the development of tumors of this localization. Human nature is such that he hears better stomach, and most other bodies (eat, drink, smoke…). Meeting (of the stomach) sometimes unreasonable demands, a thrill seeker myself, «digs the grave».

    Стадии рака, степени: 1,2,3,4, ранняя, начальная, прогноз

    The prognosis of gastric cancer largely depends on what depth has reached the tumor when immersed in the wall of the stomach. For example, early cancer, affecting only the superficial layers (mucosal and submucosal), respond well to treatment, therefore, nearly all patients survive. However, such bright prospects, unfortunately, can’t expect patients whose tumor at the first stage has spread not only to the stomach but has metastasized to the lymph nodes.

    Стадии рака, степени: 1,2,3,4, ранняя, начальная, прогноз

    the stages of stomach cancer

    The disorder in the stomach can be quite difficult to notice the symptoms show up later, not looking at the fact that the tumor can be determined by palpation. Dyspepsia, weakness, aversion to food, weight loss, lack of interest in life – these «small signs» many people refer to their normal senses, especially if you suffered from ulcers or gastritis. Pain appears in late stages (3-4), when the cancer is reaching a large size, has already left the confines of the digestive organ.

    Terminal cancer of the stomach is accompanied by great anguish:

    • Intense pain;
    • Progressive anemia;
    • Changes in the blood (leukocytosis, high erythrocyte sedimentation rate);
    • Intoxication;
    • Fever;
    • Exhaustion.

    The last stage leaves the patient with gastric cancer just a few months of life…

    Again, gender and age…

    All of the above milestones and bowel cancer. Often it affects the colon of men of middle and old age. The reason for its development as stomach cancer, are often the preferences of the patient. The first symptoms (discomfort, fatigue, nervousness) do not give much reason to suspect evil. The emergence of obvious signs (pain, intestinal disorders, release of blood in the feces) is often delayed.

    Стадии рака, степени: 1,2,3,4, ранняя, начальная, прогноз

    stages of colon cancer, 4-Oh is characterized by metastasis to the liver

    Cancer of the intestine, as in the case of neoplasias at other sites, completely determines the prediction.

    Detecting the cancer process in the first stage provides a 5-year survival rate of almost 90% of patients, with increasing degree the chance to live for many years very fall. At the last stage of colon cancer the prognosis is extremely unfavourable, especially if the tumor originated in the distal rectum.

    The problem of cancer is solved by experts, however, in the author’s opinion, a major role to play people far from medicine, if you are knowledgeable about the symptoms, stages and treatment of malignant neoplasms. It is obvious that in most cases cancer at early stages are going to win thing, its time to detect. And the patient first learns of approaching trouble, but don’t rush to try dubious medications such as soda and Hemlock, and will appeal to medical institution where he will provide expert assistance.

    Video: stages of cancer and other oncological concepts in simple language