Oophoritis: symptoms and treatment, causes of pathology
Oophoritis – with this diagnosis often face many women aged 30 to 55 years. According to the latest medical statistics, the oophoritis is the most common gynecological condition among women of reproductive age. What is this disease and how it is dangerous for female reproductive health?
Oophoritis is an inflammation of the ovaries, which can affect one ovary, or both. Accordingly, can develop both one-sided and two-sided oophoritis. In the majority of cases, inflammation of the ovary occurs on the background of inflammation of the fallopian tubes called salpingitis. This is due to the fact that due to its anatomical features and localization of the primary contact with infectious microorganisms is almost impossible, it is only through the fallopian tube, so most often these inflammatory processes occur simultaneously.
The ovaries are paired sex glands that perform in the female body a very important role. It is known that the ovaries are «responsible» for the production of female sex hormones estrogen and progesterone. Furthermore, it is in the ovaries is follicle maturation, which at the time of the bursting out the ripened egg and starts to move through the fallopian tubes to the uterus. In the case that at the time of his «travel» the Mature egg meets the sperm, fertilization occurs.
Respectively, inflammation of the ovary is a serious danger for the conception process, making it virtually impossible. Advanced stage of oophoritis may have dire consequences for the female body – from serious hormonal imbalances, infertility. It is therefore recommended immediately after the appearance of the first symptoms of gynecological diseases can start treatment immediately – only in this case, it is possible to speak about full restoration of women’s reproductive health.
Causes of oophoritis
The main reasons that can trigger the development of inflammatory process in the ovaries, the following:
- One of the main causes of inflammation of the ovary are considered different sexually transmitted infection, sexually transmitted diseases. Promiscuous with frequent change of sexual partners and lack of contraception significantly increases the risk of developing oophoritis.
- Frequent exposure of the genitals are the most common causes of pathology.
- Various disorders of the endocrine system – diabetes, thyroid dysfunction and other.
- Infections of the genitourinary system.
- Long-term Smoking. In this case we are talking about the fact that nicotine, tar and other substances contained in tobacco, when injected in the female body lead to dysfunction of the cervical canal. The result is the so-called the cervical plug, which contributes to the reduction of immune forces of an organism and the rapid penetration of the infection through the genital tract.
- The decrease in the protective forces of the body can be a result of prolonged stress, depression or chronic fatigue.
- Common causes of the inflammatory process in the ovaries associated with the various manipulations with sexual organs. Most often we are talking about childbirth, abortion, profuse menstruation, operational or diagnostic manipulation of reproductive organs, wearing intrauterine devices.
- Malignant or benign tumors of the uterus or cervix.
Forms of oophoritis
In modern obstetrics, there are several forms of inflammation of the ovary, each of which has its own characteristic symptoms, especially the development and specific clinical picture. Distinguish acute, subacute and chronic oophoritis.
Acute oophoritis: this disease is characterized by a sharp, rapid early Woman troubled by sharp, spasmodic pain in the lower abdomen that can be given in the lower back. Often an acute process is accompanied by disorders of urination, the appearance of bloody or purulent discharge from the genital tract. The acute phase is characterized by sharp deterioration of General health – weakness, fever, chills. On palpation palpable enlarged ovaries, and the palpation is accompanied by acute painful sensations.
Chronic oophoritis: this form of gynecological disease is not as acute and severe symptoms as in the acute form of inflammation of the ovary. In case of acute pain in the lower abdomen acquire aching, drawing character, you can say that develop chronic oophoritis. The painful syndrome is not very pronounced, pain in the reproductive organs appear, as a rule, only during sexual contact. Chronic process is accompanied by disorders of the menstrual cycle, lack of ovulation and serious problems with conception. The consequence of the chronic form of the disease is infertility, and therefore requires very serious treatment.
Depending on the localization and the lesion inflammation of the ovaries is also divided into several types – right, left or bilateral oophoritis.
- Right oophoritis – as is clear from this definition, right oophoritis characterized by involvement of only the right ovary. The symptoms of this form of the disease often have similar features with appendicitis, accompanied by disorders of stool and urination. A woman feels sharp, sharp pains in lower abdomen and right lower back, often – excessive uterine bleeding, unrelated to menstrual cycle. Can receive complaints of soreness during intercourse, General fatigue, weakness or fever – such a phenomenon also indicates a right-sided oophoritis. In order to rule out appendicitis, a careful diagnosis.
- Left oophoritis – inflammation is localized directly in the left ovary. In this form of the disease appear pain in the left abdomen. Left-oophoritis is characterized by the discomfort to the left of the navel. In the absence of necessary treatment pathology can attack healthy ovaries – in this case developing bilateral oophoritis.
- Bilateral oophoritis can occur in both acute and in the chronic form. Bilateral oophoritis associated with any of the above signs – a sharp or drawing pains in the groin and genital area, disorders of stool and urination, with a marked decrease in libido, pain during sexual contact. Also characteristic signs of bilateral inflammation of the ovaries is considered a violation of the menstrual cycle and the appearance of discharge from the genital tract, which may be bloody or purulent consistency. Usually bilateral the process is a natural result of running inflammation of one ovary and the absence of competent treatment.
Symptoms of oophoritis
For the inflammatory process of the ovary characterized by the following exeprince:
- Sharp or aching pain in the lower abdomen that may also extend to the lower back typical signs of oophoritis the ovary.
- Often a woman is concerned about more frequent urination. Thus, the process of urination, as well as any sexual contact that is accompanied by severe pain and discomfort.
- Signs of the disease include disorders of the chair. This is due to the close proximity of the bowel and ovaries.
- In most cases, there are abundant uterine bleeding that does not depend on the menstrual cycle. The secretions can appear purulent admixture.
- Inflammation is accompanied by pronounced symptoms of General intoxication – being is deteriorating, there is weakness, fatigue, nervousness, body aches, sleep disturbances. Also, when oophoritis can increase the body temperature, while antipyretic drugs do not bring the desired relief.
- Sharp headaches, dizziness.
- The lack of pregnancy in the numerous attempts of conception.
The severity of the main symptoms of oophoritis depends on the forms of gynecological disease. For acute stage is characterized by the maximum apparent signs, chronic – more «blurred».
Diagnosis of oophoritis
It should be noted that all of the above symptoms are characteristic not only of oophoritis, but for many other gynecological diseases. It is therefore extremely important in the treatment process acquires the correct diagnosis. Diagnosis of oophoritis – the process is quite difficult. The first thing to do before to treat disease is to consult your gynecologist who will conduct a pelvic exam and prescribe all the necessary tests and laboratory tests. In the process of palpation of the reproductive organs necessarily be felt in the ovaries, is determined by their increase, as well as soreness when performing palpation.
In the process of collecting history doctor must take into account the complaints of women to poor health or weakness, and also clarifies the regularity and characteristics of the menstrual cycle. Mandatory gynecological smears are taken, it seems a blood test and urine.
Also the patient is assigned an ultrasound of the reproductive organs or hysterosalpingoscopy. Today one of the most common and optimal methods of diagnostics of pathologies of the pelvic organs is considered to be laparoscopy. Using this effective, informative and safe technique the doctor gets the opportunity in the smallest details to consider the reproductive system, lesions and accurate localization of the inflammation. Only after all the necessary diagnostic procedures you can go directly to the treatment process that is assigned by the treating specialist on the basis of the complete clinical picture.
Acute oophoritis necessarily need to be treated only in hospitals. The chronic form of the disease can be treated at home – this question is decided solely by the treating specialist on an individual basis. Treatment of oophoritis in most cases requires a comprehensive approach that includes drug therapy, physical therapy, and when necessary, and surgical manipulation.
Drug therapy involves the use of antibacterial drugs in patients with severe pain syndrome, we recommend taking painkillers. Severe pain in the lower part of the abdomen is performed applying cold compresses. The choice of antibiotics is only after the bacterial culture is necessary in order to determine what bacteria become causative agents of the inflammatory process. You can also assign anti-inflammatory vaginal or rectal suppositories.
The woman requires bed rest with no stress and full of vitamins food. Definitely need to take care of sufficient fluid intake. Additionally, you can take a complex multivitamin, tonic and medicines-immunomodulators, which together will improve the body’s defenses. Women are encouraged to regularly engage in therapeutic exercises to eliminate stagnant processes in the pelvic organs and to give up bad habits. Smoking and drinking alcoholic beverages during the treatment of oophoritis greatly reduces its effectiveness.
Effective addition to drug therapy can be of different physiotherapy treatments. Inflammation of the ovaries is recommended to treat with magnetic therapy, UHF, electrophoresis, inductothermy, laser therapy, hirudotherapy. Additionally burn be appointed by the medical pelvic massage.
Prevention of oophoritis
As the prevention of inflammation of the reproductive organs, experts advise women to strictly observe the following guidelines:
- It is recommended to abandon a chaotic sexual life and frequent change of sexual partners. During each sexual intercourse necessarily need to use a barrier method of contraception that prevents sexually transmitted infections.
- Maximum attention should be given to genital hygiene, especially during menstruation.
- Hypothermia, as overheating may cause extreme harm to the female reproductive system, so you need to ensure stay of the pelvic organs in the best possible conditions. It is not recommended to visit a Solarium, or sauna. In the winter be sure to take care to prevent hypothermia ovaries.
- Try as much as possible to be nervous stress and depression negatively affect women’s health.
- The best option would be not Smoking and drinking alcoholic beverages. In order to maintain a high level of immunity is necessary to ensure a full, healthy diet with all necessary vitamins and microelements.
- And of course we should not forget about preventive gynecological examinations. Try to visit the doctor at least every 3-6 months – this will help prevent the development of dangerous diseases such as oophoritis ovaries.