Sick sinus of the nose and head: what to do and why get sick
What to do if you get sick the sinuses?
An important role in the formation of respiratory allotted paranasal sinuses. In the projection of the nasal cavity is gas exchange, thermoregulation and filtration of air.. There are a number of exogenous and endogenous factors that disrupt the integrity of the respiratory tract.
Pain in paranasal sinuses is preceded by the inflammatory process. Catalysts pathological changes are infectious diseases, neoplasms, and allergic reactions. The etiology of the pathogen determines the method of recovery from pharmacotherapy to surgical intervention.
The anatomical structure of pneumatic cavities
In the bones of the facial skull localized 4 pairs of paranasal sinuses:
The subordinate spaces are a continuation of the nasal cavity, and in its natural state pneumatization (filled with air).
Sinus in the composition of the mucociliary apparatus fulfill the purpose baroretseptorov of the body that moisturize,cleanse,and warm the inhaled air, insulate sensitive structures from temperature fluctuations, reduce the force of injury upon impact.
For reference! The size and shape of sinuses is determined by bone resorption. The process of forming air cavities begins in utero and ends at the time of puberty.
The surface of each sinus is lined with ciliated epithelium, poor vascular plexus, nerve endings, and glandular cells, which explains the long asymptomatic course of the disease.
Close the relative positions of the sinuses increases the risk of spreading pathogens on all air projection when infection of the upper respiratory tract. Thus, it is essential to treat ENT diseases, follow prevention.
Why hurt your sinuses
Violation of the integrity of tissue structures is manifested by discomfort, itching and burning sensation. Localization of pain in the nose in the absence of adequate therapy radiates to the projection of the zygomatic arches, the frontal and the occipital.
To provoke the clinical condition when sick sinuses, can the following adverse factors:
- Allergies. The release of a mediator of allergic reactions under the influence of aggressive antigens: dust, wool, Pets, household chemicals, disputes of plants, the rich aromas. Haphazard use of nasal drugs (vasoconstrictor partly) leads to the development of allergies and medication of rhinitis, the symptoms of which is swelling and inflammation of the mucosa, pain in the projection of the paranasal sinuses.
- Benign tumors. The growths of epithelial tissue include polyps, warts, white seal. The development of defects is preceded by a state of immunosuppression, infectious diseases, genetic predisposition, a deviated septum, adverse environmental conditions. Pathologic entities are characterized by active growth, which increases the intensity of pain in the projection of the entire facial skeleton.
- Rhinosinusitis. A collective term unites the group of acute and chronic inflammatory processes in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Most often, the pathology is typical of viral or bacterial etiology. The character of the pain determines the site of localization of inflammation: steroidit dull pain in the occiput, radiating to the frontal region, the orbital region. Sinusitis – sore cheek under the eye and a stuffy nose, etmoidit heavy in the nose and eyebrow area. Frontal sinusitis – pain in the temporal cavity, the upper part of the forehead, the back of his head.
- A decrease in immune activity. Depression of protective forces of an organism causes a high susceptibility to SARS infection, acute respiratory infections, leading to autoimmune and allergic diseases. Lesions of the upper respiratory tract manifested by pain in the nose and paranasal projections, General weakness, disturbance of natural breathing, watery eyes, coughing and sneezing.
Tip! To prevent tahifilaksii recommended to use sympathomimetic a short course of 3-5 days.
The inflammatory process in the soft tissues can develop because of overgrowth of the pharyngeal tonsils (adenoiditis), changes in bone and cartilage structure of the nose, acute tonsillitis, diseases of the gums and teeth.
Mild inflammation of the upper airway requires medical involvement. The responsibility of the audiologist to identify the nature of the occurrence, the localization and extent of lesions using the methods of differential diagnosis.
For reference! Full visualization of the clinical picture it is possible to get at rhinoscopy.
Conservative therapy involves the use of drugs with different pharmacodynamics, mechanical cleansing of the nose, heat treatments, surgical intervention.
Irrigation of the nasal cavity
Lavage of the nasal passages administered for prophylactic or therapeutic purposes. Release the nasal passages from accumulations of mucus, pathogenic agents has a positive effect in ENT pathologies.
For nasal lavage using a saline solution (250 ml. distilled water + 1 tsp soda + 1-2 drops of iodine). Standing over the sink, the liquid from the pipette or syringe carefully introduced into each hole. Even if it hurts the left sinus of the nose, the treatment shall be two pneumatic cavity. Completing the procedure of forced exhalation through the nose.
Tip! Children under the age of three therapeutic manipulations are performed in the following manner: the nasal openings introduce 2-3 drops of the liquid after 5-10 minutes clean sterile cotton harness.
Effective pharmaceutical preparations extensive list: «Dolphin», «Furatsilinom», «Dioxidine». Nasal suspensions show complex action: anti-inflammatory, antiseptic and anti-allergic.
When severe nasal congestion pre-buried vasoconstrictor drops by type «Naphazoline», «Nazivin», «Otrivin», «Rinonorm», «Snoop», «Glycine Ksilo».
The audiologist selects drugs depending on the type of pathogen and the physiology of the patient. The treatment of acute or recurrent sinusitis phase is limited to an average of 7-14 days. Recovery in the chronic stage demands more constructive therapy and prolonged medication.
To achieve positive dynamics is prescribed the following medications:
- Moisturizing: «Akvamaris», «Humer», «Aqualor», «Marimer», «Sanorin». Under the action of isotonic water with impurities of useful macro constricts blood vessels, reduces the manifestation of puffiness, restores nasal breathing.
- Antihistamine: «Loratadine», «Effective», «Aerius», «Parlazin». Block the production of the H-1 histamine receptors, reducing the intensity or profilaktirujut the development of allergic reactions. And protivoekssoudative possess antipruritic action.
- Mucolytic: «Muradin», «Ascoril», «Libeksin Muko», «Fluditec». Diluting the pathological secret, reduce the ability of mucus to adhere to the walls of the respiratory tract. Have mild anti-inflammatory and antispasmodic action, active antioxidant.
- Antibiotics: «Polideksa», «Izofra», «Bioparox», «Ceftriaxone», «Augmentin». Effective against gram-positive and gram-negative strains. Bacteriostatic activity is exhibited at the cellular level, which reduces the ability of an infectious agent to grow and reproduce.
- Antiviral: «Peramivir», «Ingavirin», «Arbidol», «Kagocel». Effective in the first three days of viral upper respiratory tract. Etiotropic means inhibit the activity of the virus, reducing the duration of manifestation of symptoms, form local immunity.
- Vasoconstrictor: «Ksimelin Extra», «Založennost’û», «Vibrocil», «Mucosolvan Reno.» Increase aeration of pneumatic cavities, increase the production of ciliated epithelium, restores nasal breathing, reduces the pathologic exudation.
Important! Reduce the sensitivity of pain receptors in the nasal mucosa analgesics «Phenylbutazone», «Phenacetin,» «Combopass», «Maxican», «Spazmalgon».
A comprehensive scheme of treatment of inflammatory processes in the respiratory pathways complement immunomodulatory drugs: «IRS-19», «Sinupret». Their active composition enhances the immune response, promote the rapid regression, reduce the number of complications.
What to do if you get sick of the sinuses even after conservative treatment? Then doctors perform surgery. Modern therapy offers minimally invasive methods to restore drainage of sinuses, namely, puncture of the maxillary sinus, endoscopic surgery, AMIC-procedure.
Pain signals the inflammation of the upper respiratory tract. This symptomatology requires the timely relief, because there is a risk of chronicity of the pathology, development of meningitis, bronchitis, pneumonia.
The initial stage of ENT diseases respond well to medical treatment, running form requires surgical intervention.