Sinuses: anatomy of the paranasal sinuses, clinical anatomy

Anatomy of nose and paranasal sinuses

The human nose is one of the senses. However, it does not only olfactory function. He is responsible for many other important functions, providing normal operation of the entire respiratory system in General.

In order to understand the mechanism of occurrence of pathologies of the nose and successfully deal with them, you should know the anatomy of the nose and sinuses, as well as features of message structural elements with each other.

The nose is the initial part of the respiratory system

The nose is the organ responsible for performing a variety of functions.

It is the beginning of the respiratory tract, and thus plays an important role in the relationship of the organism with the surrounding world.

Help. About 20,000 liters of air volume, which the person inhales throughout the day.

The nose like any other human organ is an important component to ensure the normal functioning of the body. This is achieved through such features:

  1. Breathing – provide oxygen to the body, which is a necessary condition for the normal operation of all systems.
  2. Safety – here the nose acts as a filter that can hold the dust and pathogenic microorganisms. Do the job the mucous membranes and the hairs.
  3. Warming of inhaled air occurs due to the extensive blood supply. Without this feature, the brain and the cavity of the nose and throat are constantly overcooled.
  4. Resonance – determines the character of the sound of the voice, that is, its sonority, the individuality of timbre. When pathologies (rhinitis, polyps) there is a distinctive twang.
  5. Olfactory – the difference between odors with olfactory receptors.

Even the slightest malfunction in this system can threaten the development of various pathological conditions, both in the nose and in many systems of the body.

For example, shortness of breath changes the occurrence of oxidative processes, which in turn leads to failure in work of cardiovascular and nervous systems, as well as the lower divisions of the respiratory system.

Interesting. Person in certain times breathing only one nostril, that is every 4 hours they change the «leading head» because of the expansion and contraction of blood vessels. The way the breathing cycle in many people.

The structure of the nose and paranasal sinuses

Clinical anatomy of the nose and paranasal sinuses contain several major structural elements:

  • the sinuses;
  • the nasal cavity;
  • the external nose.
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Such structural components is characterized by a complex structure, so we will consider them in more detail (start with the inner part).

Paranasal sinuses

Paranasal sinuses – air spaces, which are placed near the nose and have close communication with him.

If the inflammation of the sinuses occurs, it may face complications to other organs nearby.

Help. Any bosom can be a factor in the spread of inflammation in the skull, eye damage and other consequences.

In total, this anatomical structure can count 4 pairs of paranasal sinuses, characterized by a distinctive structure.

Paranasal sinuses Structure
Frontal Located in the bones of the forehead and have 4 wall – lower orbital, inner, front, back.

Have access to the middle nasal canal

The size of the sinuses for 3-5 cm3.

The ethmoid labyrinth Located between the nasal cavity and eye socket.

Include about 5-20 small cavities, which are divided into groups – front, middle, rear.

Wedge Located in the thick of the sphenoid bone and are separated by a partition into 2 parts.

Have an independent exit to the zone of the upper nasal passage.



Located in bones of jaw and has the form of a pyramid irregular in shape.

Consist of 4 walls: anterior, medial, top, bottom, rear.

The size of the sinuses — 15-20 cm3.

The nasal cavity

The nasal cavity is the space located between the front of the oral cavity and cranial fossa.

Divided by a partition into two areas (right, left). Characterized by the presence of the front openings – the nostrils and the back of goanow. Each nose piece has 4 walls.

The structure of the nasal cavity is much more complicated his outer part, which is caused by the diversity of the functions performed.

Consider in more detail the structure of this structure in outline form.

The nasal cavity


(nasal septum)

Consists of the quadrangular cartilage, the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone, the vomer.
Top Plate of the ethmoid bone that contributes to the formation of the arch of the nose.

Through the hole in it lie the olfactory nerve and vessels.

Lower Consists of palatal process of maxilla and horizontal plate of palate bone.
Lateral Consists of the following bones: nasal, Palatine, lacrimal, ethmoid, main.

The internal surface of this bone contains 3 education – turbinate (upper, middle, lower).

Nasal passages Lower Nasolacrimal duct.
Average Communicates with the maxillary, frontal sinus, anterior and middle ethmoid cells.
Top Leads to sphenoid sinus and posterior ethmoid cells.
Region mucosa Ahead Limited to the wings of the nose.

Skra is lined with epithelium with many hairs.

Respiratory The space between the bottom of the nasal cavity and the bottom edge of the shell average.

Mucosa is covered with cylindrical ciliated epithelium.

Olfactory Located in the upper rear part of the nasal cavity.

Contains olfactory receptors.

In the area of smell human body contains about 12 million olfactory receptors, whose number decreases with age.

The external nose

This structural part is a bony and cartilaginous skeleton in the form of a pyramid, characterized by a variety of shapes and sizes, due to the climate in which people live.

Help. In this education there are such components: root, back, tip, rays, wings.

The skeleton consists of several types of tissue, whose structure is schematically given below.

The skeleton of the pyramid shape
Bone Cartilage Soft tissue
Paired nasal bones, frontal processes of the maxilla, nasal process of the frontal bone.

The lower border of the bone forms the opening which is necessary for mounting the external nose.

Paired cartilages: triangular, krylnyh plus, the small cartilages of the nose wings.

Unpaired quadrangular cartilage is the basis of partition.

The skin includes sebaceous glands in greater numbers.

Hairs, which protect against germs.

Vessels that provide blood flow in the body.

This structure has the outer part of the organ is necessary not only for normal operation, but also to create a cosmetic effect.


Nose and paranasal sinus is a complex anatomical structure, which is located next to the brain. So any prolonged inflammation may present a potential danger to human health.

Therefore, the therapy of even the most ordinary of rhinitis, not to mention more serious pathologies, needs to be thorough, deliberate and under the control of a specialist.

We also propose you to find information about treating sinusitis at home.