Sinusitis: causes in adults and children

What causes sinusitis?

Disease of the paranasal sinuses in medicine is called sinusitis. The disease is characterized as acute or chronic inflammation of the paranasal sinuses. In the course of the disease the patient is suffering from nasal congestion, pain or shooting sensations in the head and temples, when numerous mucous secretion mixed with pus, as well as the accumulation of fluid in the maxillary sinuses.

If the inflammation is not cured in time, to get rid of the disease can only be surgically. But in the early stages treatment involves antibiotic therapy, anti-inflammatory drugs and vasoconstrictor drops. However, the purpose of medical treatment, it is important to know the causes of sinusitis in adults.

What is sinusitis

Inflammation of the paranasal sinuses or sinusitis is very common disease. It suffers from approximately five percent of the total population of Russia. The disease may be localized on a single paranasal sinus or hit two maxillary cavity.

Read more about the disease in this material.

The disease is accompanied by a number of symptoms:

  • stuffiness in one or both of the sinuses;
  • pain between the eyebrows;
  • the pressure in the bridge of the nose;
  • pus;
  • the accumulation of mucous secretion in the paranasal sinuses;
  • the increase in body temperature;
  • severe swelling of the cheeks and neck;
  • deterioration of health;
  • signs of severe intoxication;
  • complete or partial loss of smell;
  • fatigue and loss of efficiency;
  • the swelling of tissues.

In addition, the patient can torment constant coughing or sneezing, shortness of nasal breathing, and other signs. In the case of chronic sinusitis the symptoms may be less pronounced sharply, but in any case will bring serious discomfort.

Why do I get sinusitis

Causes of sinusitis in children and adults alike. In most cases, the factors of formation of inflammation of the paranasal sinuses lie in the body’s immune system. In her weakened and loss of protective features in the patient’s body can penetrate any infection.

Features of emergence of adults is further described in this article.

Acute respiratory disease

Acute respiratory infections are the main cause of the formation of sinusitis. Even regular rhinitis can provoke the development of acute sinusitis, so it is important to treat all ENT diseases.

Undertreated rhinitis acute or chronic threat to human health consequences. It leads to swelling of the ductless in the Eustachian tube and causes clogging of the orifices. In this process, sinusitis is formed due to the accumulation of mucous secretion in the duct or within the nasal cavity.

To alleviate the condition, you can use vasoconstrictive drops and anti-inflammatory medications. But the main treatment should be aimed at cleansing the sinuses from accumulated mucus.

Viral damage

Another factor, which occurs the sinusitis is viral infection of the paranasal sinuses. When the penetration of viruses, malicious elements first striking the upper respiratory tract. At this time the cells of the mucosa exposed to aggressive action of pathogens. As a result of this process is dysfunction of the cavity and the formation of large amounts of mucus.

Most often, the patient does not pay attention to the cold, which over several hours may pass from the nasal cavity into the maxillary sinus.

Principal pathogens of sinusitis:

  • rhinoviruses;
  • influenza viruses and parainfluenza;
  • coronaviruses;
  • respiratory syncytial viruses;
  • adenoviruses;
  • enteroviruses.

In viral lesions of the paranasal sinuses patient has the acute form of sinusitis.

Important! Treatment of the acute form is prescribed by a doctor, as it is important to determine the type of the causative agent.

Bacterial development

Sinusitis acute or chronic forms may occur due to bacterial reproduction. Pathogens can easily penetrate into the nasal cavity with a weak immune system or due to mucosal trauma.

During the multiplication of bacteria within the nasal cavity there is an acute inflammation of sinusitis, which in the absence of necessary treatment for a short time can turn into chronic phase.

The most dangerous bacteria include:

  • coccal infections;
  • Mycoplasma;
  • chlamydia;
  • pneumoniae Streptococcus;
  • hemophilic Bacillus;
  • Moraxella.

It is important to know! These types of bacteria often amaze mucous children from seven years.

Tonsillitis, strep throat or pharyngitis

Another reason for the formation of inflammation of the paranasal sinuses lies in the development of chronic tonsillitis. The infection penetrates into the maxillary cavity due to frequent or improper bismarckiana.

In some cases, sinusitis can be acute form in consequence of inflammation of the tonsils. Most often a sore throat goes to sinusitis when the incorrect drug therapy or due to a very weak immune system of the patient.

Among patients is often marked by the formation of sinus due to chronic inflammation of pharyngitis. Its effect similarly as in chronic tonsillitis.

Anatomical features

Sinusitis acute, but more chronic stages, is noted in patients with deviated septum. Deformation of the partition leads to a strong decrease in the diameter of the nostrils and poor outflow of mucus. In addition, people suffering from acquired or congenital deviated septum, noted a constant stuffy nose.

Remember! This form of sinusitis is practically not amenable to medical treatment. Get rid of the disease is possible only after surgical intervention.

Dental disease

Unhealthy teeth become frequent reason for sinusitis. For this reason, include pulpitis and caries. When the penetration of infection through diseased teeth in the upper jaw cause acute inflammation in the maxillary sinus.

In the photo below the red arrow shows the tooth with filling material, leaving gaymorovu sinus. A green arrow indicates a cyst around the tooth root. Dashed line marks the inflammation in the sinus.

Read more here about cyst of the maxillary sinuses.


Some patients suffer from the development of sinusitis are allergic in nature.

Usually this type of inflammation of the paranasal sinuses affects people with hypersensitivity to drugs, and also suffering from reactions to pollen, pet dander, flowering and so on.

Other reasons

In addition to these reasons, the inflammation of the maxillary sinus may occur due to the following factors:

  • a complication of diseases in the upper respiratory tract;
  • a consequence of acute infections or influenza;
  • the pressure change;
  • long-term seasonal or year-round rhinitis;
  • measles;
  • scarlet fever.

Regardless of the root cause, it is important to provide medical assistance. Otherwise there is a risk of life-threatening complications.


Sinusitis is a dangerous disease that is accompanied by severe symptoms. In case of improper treatment or violation of the rules of the medication, the patient may appear meningitis, inflammation of the brain, and the disease spread to nearby tissues.

In addition, the risk of sinusitis is the risk of the formation of meningoencephalitis and the transition of purulent secretions in the skull, which can cause death.

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