Stop epistaxis: methods and algorithm
Ways to stop epistaxis
Bleeding from the nose may appear for different reasons. Most often the blood flowing from physical damage, but can also occur due to the formation of a tumor or cyst in the cavity. Nasal bleeding is copious blood, but also she can bake the inside of the nasal cavity. In severe cases, blood may drain into the throat, which can lead even to death. Therefore, in any case of injury of the nose you need to visit a doctor-traumatologist.
The frequent bleeding you can’t ignore the process. Often it causes severe pallor, dizziness, lack of oxygen, increased heart rate and loss of consciousness. It is therefore very important to have an algorithm for stopping nosebleeds, and, if necessary, to properly use it.
The cause of bleeding
Bloody nasal discharge can be a very dangerous process, so it is important to know and determine the cause of the disease. Often the main factor in the formation of such a disease is the development of various inflammations. These include reduced blood clotting, jaundice, syphilis and other dangerous ailments.
With the development of such diseases blood vessels are very permeable, which causes the bleeding process.
Nosebleeds can occur due to the following pathological processes:
- trauma with major vascular injury;
- the formation of polyps in the nasal cavity;
- a tumor or cyst;
- penetration into the nasal cavity foreign objects;
- poor blood clotting;
- uncontrolled use of certain drugs from the group of antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants;
- the consequences of SARS;
- hormonal disturbance, pregnancy;
- lack of vitamins;
- the excessive fragility of blood vessels due to the inflammation of the liver or spleen;
- heavy physical activity;
If the patient has high blood clotting and a good immune system, then slightly stop bleeding by themselves, but in some cases, patients need urgent medical care.
Whatever the reason, it is important to know the basic rules and ways to stop epistaxis.
How to stop the bleeding
Treatment of epistaxis should engage a qualified doctor.
You should never rely on a single case, therefore, it is necessary to consult otolaryngologist.
If you asked for medical help, be prepared to undergo cauterization of the bleeding vessel with a laser.
It is absolutely painless procedure which takes about ten minutes. In some cases, if the bloody discharge is abundant, the bleeding stopped with liquid nitrogen or electrocoagulator.
In severe cases, doctors perform posterior tamponade of the nose and throat. But this usually happens in case of excessive bleeding when the affected and the back of the nasal cavity. This usually occurs as a result of strong fights or accidents.
After which patients are prescribed medical therapy. Treatment includes receiving aminocaproic acid and lots of vitamins. At this time you cannot use any drugs that thin the blood.
If the reason for the formation of the bleeding is a tumor or polyps, a surgical procedure is performed. At this time, the patient and remove all tumors in the nasal cavity. It is important to address not only the inflammation, but all contributing factors. Therefore, in the future patient is prescribed medication that eliminates additional symptoms of the tumor.
Stop epistaxis at home
If possible, seek treatment in a medical center at the moment, but the bloody discharge has not stopped, it is necessary to take the following measures:
- First, the patient and his assistants need to calm down. Keep in mind that excessive nervousness and stress only contribute to the palpitations and increased allocation of blood. Such a process will only worsen the situation.
- To stop the bleeding can’t hold your head back. It’s a common opinion is erroneous, because in this position, the blood may penetrate into the area around the mouth, and thence into the stomach or Airways. This process can be fatal.
- Best to place patient on bed or floor and keep your head tilted towards your chest.
- To prevent ask to bring smelling salts.
- Once you have fulfilled these conditions, it is necessary to press the wings of the nose to the bulkhead. At this time, the patient must breathe through the mouth. Keep this position for ten minutes.
This method will help only in case of scant bleeding, but if the process is more complicated — it is necessary to cool the affected part.
This will apply to the inflamed area, ice or any other cold object wrapped in cloth. Keep it for at least five minutes. During this time there will be vasoconstriction, which will reduce bleeding.
If ice were not available, attach to the nose of a cloth soaked in icy water. In this case, the subject should be tightly pressed against the wing of nose for fifteen minutes.
In the case of excessive bleeding in the accident in the nose, you need to enter vasoconstrictor drops Naphazoline, Sanorin, Xilin and others.
Another method of stopping bleeding – swabs. Prepare turundas gauze or cotton, soak it in hydrogen peroxide or Chlorhexidine and gently insert into the nose. In advance the wings of the nose grease with a fat cream or vaseline.
Keep turundy in the nasal cavity not less than one hour, and then gently remove. The technique of stopping epistaxis in children is not different from an adult. But keep in mind that turundy in this situation should be significantly less.
What are the dangers of bleeding
If a process such as bloody discharge is not stopped in time, then the patient may be seriously threatened. But mild the allocation is not dangerous, so it is important to determine the cause of such a situation. In some cases it may stop on their own, while others require urgent attention from the medical staff.
Abundant bloody discharge without medical intervention can lead to a strong drop in blood pressure that will cause uncontrollable processes. Fortunately, such cases are quite rare.
It should be noted that if you have severe hypertension, such as bleeding occur often enough. The cause of bleeding in this case — violation of pressure that needs to be restored with the help of medical drugs. If this process is ignored, then following the bursting of the vessel may be in a more dangerous location such as the head, which will lead to the development of stroke.
Don’t forget that frequent nosebleeds be a reason for seeking treatment.