Streptococcus pneumonia (streptococcus pneumoniae) in the nose of the child: how to treat
How to treat streptococcal pneumonia in a child?
The definition of a streptococcal pathogen in the body of the child is dangerous to the development of infectious diseases of the oral cavity such as acute tonsillitis, periodontitis, scarlet fever, pneumonia. There is also the risk of tissue necrosis, disruption of the heart, kidneys, inflammation of the brain.
Infectious agent affects different parts of the ENT organs. The localization of the pathogens determines the therapeutic regimen, because each form requires individual treatment.
What’s this «Streptococcus pneumoniae»
Streptococcus is part of the natural flora, so a certain amount is present in the body of a healthy person. When the concentration of pathogenic strains of streptococcus pneumoniae exceeds the permitted limit, the lesion develops in lung tissue (streptococcal pneumonia).
Norma streptococcus pneumoniae in a child is equal to 105 (10 to the fifth power). All the indicators are above this level create the preconditions for the development of pathogenic environment.
Alpha-hemolytic strep presents gram-positive anaerobic Bacillus. A bacterium reproduces asexually. Child body is formed when separated from somatic cells by mitosis inherit a genetic set of chromosomes from the parent species.
Favorable conditions for activation of the exciters – stunted immune system, flu, colds, haphazard admission of synthetic drugs, poor living conditions. At risk patients with a history of measles, chickenpox, whooping cough.
For reference! Bacteria are life activity when the condition of wet warm air. Accordingly, the peak streptococcal pneumonia falls in the spring and autumn period.
Streptococcus pneumoniae often attacks the upper respiratory tract, nasopharynx. For the life of microorganisms do not need air so you can circulate from systemic circulation. The pathological processes most often diagnosed in children due to anatomical and physiological characteristics of the nasal cavity.
Mechanisms of development and symptoms of streptococcal pneumonia
The source of infection is apparent or asymptomatic carrier of streptococcal infection. Viral agents transmitted by airborne droplets, through dirty hands, household and personal care products, contaminated product.
In the case when the opportunistic microorganisms become pathogenic strains, is samsarajade. A signal for their development is congenital or acquired immunodeficiency. With the flow of lymph the pathogens into the internal organs.
Depending on the localization and the lesion is isolated:
- Streptococcus pneumonia in the nose can cause inflammation of the lining of upper body – rhinitis;
- in the nasopharynx – in the result of atrophy in the lymph nodes of the pharyngeal ring, develops acute tonsillitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, in rare cases, scarlet fever;
- in the lower respiratory tract – leads to the development of pneumonia, bronchitis.
The infection may trigger the surgical removal of the tonsils, the development of sinusitis or bronchitis chronic form.
The symptoms appear acutely. Children complain of the following deviations:
- throat pain while swallowing saliva, eating, a feeling of tightness in the oral cavity does not leave even at rest;
- elevated body temperature, low grade indicator above 38° C;
- fever that alternates with a painful sensation of cold;
- increased size of the submandibular lymph nodes give pain on palpation.
To determine the etiological structure of the virus is possible using a microbiological analysis of the discharge throat, the sinuses, urine, blood to identify the qualitative and quantitative composition of microflora.
Treatment of Streptococcus pneumoniae in the nose of a child
The main methods of struggle with a staph infection include the following bed rest, especially rest needed by the body at an elevated temperature. For removing the products of intoxication, parents should provide the child drinking plenty of fluids (warm tea with raspberry or chamomile tea, rose hips extract).
Important! Septic process of the pharynx and upper respiratory tract cause streptococci groups A and C.
During illness the child’s diet no solid food. Meals recommended to deliver puréed, porridge is good to tenderize, the emphasis is on dairy products.
Streptococci are resistant to environmental conditions, so give adequate antibiotic therapy. Treatment with synthetic medicines can reduce the concentration of infectious agents in the body, prevent the formation of new foci of inflammation.
Streptococcus pneumoniae is characteristic of hypersensitivity to penicillins and cephalosporins.
Pharmacological action of drugs of the penicillin group
Molecule chemicals join the enzymes of the cell wall of bacteria, thereby destroying them. In the therapeutic scheme often has the following pharmaceutical products:
- «Benzylpenicillin». Powder for intramuscular injection is assigned via injection every 4 hours, but not more than 6 times a day. The dosage is determined by your baby’s weight, shape and degree of localization of Streptococcus pneumoniae. The indicative rate for patients from 5 months to 2 years – 240 mg. of calculation 30-50 mg/kg, up to 7 years – increased to 300 -500 mg. for 4 times, 7 — 12 years: 500-900 mg/kg;
Nuance! If taking penicillin cause allergic reaction in a child, it can be replaced by erythromycin.
- «Flemoksin Solutab». Bactericidal acid-resistant antibiotic, is completely absorbed immediately after injection. Intended for oral intake, the amount of the drug is determined individually depending on the severity of the pathological process, age of the patient. Daily dose for children in the first year of life varies from 30 to 60 mg. for three doses, from one year to 3 years appoint 250 mg. twice a day, from 3 to 10 years – 250 mg. regimen 3 doses, over 10 years of 500-700 mg. morning and evening;
- «Dentists» (penicillin V). According to the antimicrobial effect of the product is identical with the drugs benzylpenicillin. Does not accumulate inside the body, immediately and almost completely absorbed. The dosing regimen for children weighing up to 40 kg are limited to 250-500 mg every 8 hours over 10 years – 500 mg. with the same frequency. The course of treatment varies up to 10 days.
Side effects from taking drugs group of penicillin can cause an allergic reaction with sensitivity to the individual components.
Method of application and dosage of cephalosporins
Bacteriostatic effect of drugs is due to inhibition of synthesis of growing and propagating viruses. Representatives are the following medications:
- «Cefuroxime-axetil». The main component cefuroxime sodium with a concentration of 0.75 and 1.5 g Powder for preparation of solution intramuscular or intravenous injection prescribing children 30-100 mg/kg 3 to 4 times per night, for newborns the optimal norm will be 30 mg per kg of body weight;
- «Ceftazidime» (Fortum). Administered in clinical situations when the use of other antibiotics did not bring the positive dynamics of recovery. Under the action of the active ingredients – ceftazidime, disturbed the synthesis of the cell membrane of Streptococcus pneumoniae, causing infectious agents are killed. The drug is rapidly reaches the plasma concentration, the therapeutic effect persists up to 12 hours. The maximum allowable daily rate for children older than two months is 6 g, divided into 2-3 injections.
Potent against gram-positive bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae acts «Artid», «Ceftazidime». For therapeutic result of the course of antibiotics is an average of 10 days.
Mandatory drugs in the treatment of streptococcal infection
The treatment with synthetic drugs causes imbalance of lactic acid bacteria. To maintain and restore the intestinal flora medical scheme is supplemented by preparations on the basis of lyophilized viable lactic acid microorganisms.
Local action in the gastrointestinal tract has oral «Linex», «Acetal», «Bifiform» or similar pharmaceutical products. For children under 3 years contents of one capsule connected with liquid (juice, compote, water), patients older appoint 1-2 capsules three times a day.
To reduce the severity of symptoms of allergic reactions prescribers group etilendiaminom. They have a sedative, antipruritic action, blocking the histamine receptor H1. The therapeutic effect of the drug develops within a quarter of an hour after administration, and persists for about 6 hours.
Active substances are rapidly absorbed in the digestive tract. For children, the optimal choice would be «Suprastin», «Zodak», «Diazolin». The drug recommended to take during meals with plenty of liquid. Single dose for children aged 3 to 6 years – ½ tablet morning and evening, from 6 to 14 years – ½ tablet three times a day.
Antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus infection has drug «streptococcal Bacteriophage». The drug does not alter the natural microflora, causes lysis of only the pathogenic strains.
The duration of treatment, pattern of use and the dosage determined by the therapist. The medication is taken by swallowing through the mouth, rectal and topical use. In the case of Streptococcus pneumoniae in the nose with a solution of washed nasal passages or gargle.
Important! At an elevated temperature to efficiently give your baby antipyretic drug «Nurofen». For the relief of acute pain suited to the local analgesics.
When dealing with infectious agents, the task of parents to increase the child’s immunity. To inhibit the synthesis of Streptococcus pneumoniae is only possible with antibiotics. How to treat a pathologic process in the nose and the duration of the course is determined by the physician according to the severity of the disease based on the patient’s history.