The bodies of the human ear: structure and function, photos
How does hearing a person?
The organ of hearing is a paired organ, the main function of which consists in the perception of sound signals and, accordingly, orientation in the environment. To function correctly, it must be carefully and properly care. This will be useful to study the structure and functions of the organs of hearing more details.
The structure of the ear is very complicated. You should also take into account the fact that the hearing has a direct connection with the ability to speak. Speech activity is not able to function normally without the full perception of sound waves.
The structure of the organs of hearing
The organ of hearing person is able to perceive sounds in the range 16 to 20 thousand vibrations of sound waves per second. Its age features include: with age, the number of perceived vibration is reduced. Seniors can take a maximum of 15 thousand cycles per 1 second.
As the figure shows, the organ of hearing is located in the temporal bone of the skull and is divided into three sections, anatomically and functionally connected among themselves:
- the outer ear;
- middle ear;
- inner ear.
Each part of the auditory apparatus has its own specific structure and performs specific functions.
The outer ear
The first division consists of the auricle and auditory meatus or ear canal. Due to the shape of shells, the shell of the ear catches sound waves as a kind of locator. Further, the sound enters the auditory canal. Between the outer and middle ear is the eardrum.
She has the ability to vibrate, thereby transferred all of the sound vibrations in the middle ear Department. Itself the auricle is a cartilaginous tissue that is covered by skin. The structural features of the visible part of the ear you can see in the photo below.
The main function of the outer ear is to protect. Cells present in the ear canal, can produce sulfur, which protects the secondary, and the inner ear from dust and pathogens.
There are other functions of the outer ear:
- maintaining the required humidity and temperature;
- protection against environmental influences;
- the reception of sound waves;
- the concentration of the sounds that are coming from different sides.
It is from the outer ear depends on the functionality of your hearing. Remember that various diseases of the outer ear lead to inflammation of the middle and sometimes the inner ear. So at the slightest pain go on to a specialist.
The middle ear
To the second division on the human ear includes Eustachian tube and tympanic cavity, in the area of the temples. Tympanic cavity filled with air and has a size of not more than one cubic centimeter. It has 6 walls:
- Lateral has the form of a dome, it has the head of the hammer and anvil;
- Medial has two openings, one of which is inserted into the stirrup;
- The rear is a small cavity extending into the side of the mastoid otherstock;
- Front – next to it are the internal carotid artery;
- Top – separates the cranial cavity from the tympanic cavity;
- Bottom — the bottom.
The auditory ossicles — hammer, anvil, and stirrup, sustavchikov related to each other. In the middle ear also has arteries, nerves and lymphatic vessels.
The main function of this Department is conductive. The air vibrations affect the auditory ossicles and the eardrum, and then transmitting sounds to the inner ear.
In addition, the middle ear is capable of:
- to adapt the acoustic apparatus to different sounds;
- to support the auditory ossicles and the eardrum itself is in good shape;
- to protect your hearing from loud sounds.
The inner ear
This Department is also called the labyrinth. It has bony labyrinth and membranous. The bone labyrinth is a small, connected with each other cavities and passages, their walls are made of bones. Membranous — lies in the inner part of the ossified labyrinth.
In the inner ear can distinguish the following divisions:
- semicircular canals (ducts);
- ear snail.
The threshold is ovoid cavity, which is located in the ear labyrinth in the middle. There are five holes. They lead to the channels. Hole ahead of most, it leads to the main canal of the cochlea. On one hole, at the exit is the stirrup-plate, the other has a membrane.
It should also be noted that in the area of the vestibule is the crest dividing the cavity in two. A recess located in pogrebetskogo region, goes into the cochlear duct. Snail similar to helix and is composed of bone tissue. The snail itself is very durable and reliable.
The functions of this Department include:
- conduction of sounds through the ducts;
- the conversion of sounds into impulses that then enter the brain;
- the stabilization of balance, the orientation of man in space.
The main organ of balance is the duct and the membranous labyrinth. The structure of the body gives the opportunity to understand where the source of sound and is fine to navigate in space. The inner ear allows you to understand where the sounds come from which direction.
Thanks to the balance that provides the body, the person is not falling and does not tilt. If something goes wrong, then comes the dizziness, tilting, uneven walking and inability to stand.
All departments of the organs of hearing are interrelated. For this organ to function properly, should follow the simple rules and recommendations. At the slightest discomfort, immediately go to the hospital. Do not listen to loud music and monitor the hygiene of the ears. More details will talk about what is the organ of hearing – anatomy.