The effects of cystitis in women: pyelonephritis and other
The first symptoms of acute cystitis often leads a woman to not run to the doctor for a prescription, and to her friends for advice. And treat this serious disease than have to, do not understand the reasons, and wanting only to remove the painful symptoms, which is fraught with complications. For the sake of his health, a woman should know how dangerous is cystitis why it must be treated immediately to end.
Cystitis: causes and manifestation of disease
Acute inflammation of the tissues of the bladder medicine called cystitis.
This disease is difficult to confuse with others, the symptoms are very characteristic. Inflammation prevents the body to exercise the function of the accumulation of urine, irritation of the bladder wall is perceived as a desire to urinate. The urge to go to the toilet «small» occur more often than usual.
As a rule, the inflammation takes the urethra — the urethra. Hot acrid urine, passing through it, causing severe irritation, sharp pain. The consistency of urine is cloudy, sometimes it is detected the blood.
The cause of the disease is usually infectious agent listed in the urethra from the genital organs or of the intestine. Because of the proximity of these organs to the urethra, cystitis is most often diagnosed in women. The female urethra is short and wide clearance that allows the pathogen to quickly for him to pass.
On this basis, the cystitis can be considered extremely unpleasant disease. In addition to the physical discomfort, he delivers and mental suffering that leads to stress, depression.
Timely treatment of cystitis
Even diagnosed uncomplicated inflammation requires a long professional treatment. Insidious infection resists to the last, secured the mucous membrane of the urethra, in the bladder.
The traditional method of treatment is antibiotic therapy. It is extremely important to bring it to the end, to the complete destruction of the infection, otherwise the inevitable relapse.
Complications of cystitis occur if:
- the disease was left without treatment;
- the treatment did not meet the specifics of the disease (wrong antibiotic, wrong calculated dose);
- the treatment was interrupted.
To support treatment with antibiotics, enhance immunity, rapid restoration of health is assigned to concomitant treatment (phytotherapy).
Treated under the supervision of a physician provides acute cystitis complications are extremely rare. The consequences of untreated cystitis can be extremely serious.
What are the possible complications?
If the infection is not promptly removed from the body, it is not limited to one organ, and continues its spread.
First of all, the disease is firmly fixed in the bladder, taking a new, more severe form:
Infection quickly rises through the urinary system, and urethritis, cystitis added:
- vesicoureteral urinary reflux;
- pyelonephritis in a General or chronic form.
In addition to all these physiological effects do not forget about the constant nervous tension, irritability, stress, inability normal sexual life. The psychological effects of cystitis in women can be serious as well.
Often cystitis women self-medicate, placing the main task of getting rid of unpleasant symptoms and pain. When it is possible to eliminate the symptoms of the disease, they calm down. Infection some time do not like about ourselves, but will show up later. Cystitis passes in the chronic phase.
Chronic cystitis may recur several times during the year. His symptoms are not as strong as the symptoms of acute cystitis, so the woman continues to self-medicate, seeking temporary improvements, but driving the disease deeper.
Inadequate antibiotic therapy cystitis leads to the fact that pathogenic bacteria mutate, become resistant to the medication. Subsequently, to cure this disease is extremely difficult.
Infection permanently living in the bladder in chronic cystitis, can easily cause more dangerous diseases.
Cystitis with blood
Pathogens, once in the bladder and a foothold there, begin to destroy the body wall, causing ulceration, damage to blood vessels. The urine thus acquires a pinkish or reddish color due to the presence of blood has a bad odor.
Hematuria can also be caused by exposure to certain medications that damage the kidneys or bladder.
Symptoms of hemorrhagic cystitis is similar to the manifestation of acute forms of the disease:
- frequent and very painful urination;
- urine volume is only a few drops;
- change the color and odor of urine, presence of blood;
- pain in the abdomen and the perineum, oblegchat when exposed to heat;
- often fever, fever, General weakness.
Therapy is the destruction of pathogenic factor and restoring blood loss.
Fortunately, the appearance of blood in the urine usually is a good reason to visit the doctor who prescribes appropriate treatment. If left untreated hemorrhagic cystitis, he goes into more serious disease, to get rid of without consequences will not succeed.
The progression of the disease leads to destruction of the mucous membrane of the bladder and inflammation of the muscle layer. In the absence of treatment for damaged muscle fibers are replaced by connective scar tissue. The bladder loses its elasticity, cannot be stretched by accumulating urine, ceases to perform its main function.
The symptoms of interstitial cystitis is expressed even more clearly:
- painful and frequent urination a few drops;
- urinary incontinence;
- pain in the abdomen, aggravated by sexual intercourse;
- the temperature rise due to the constant presence of the inflammatory process;
- violation of the microflora of the vagina, of the intestines; constipation.
With extensive damage to the muscular and submucosal layers of the bladder the restoration of its functions is impossible, surgical removal of the organ
In the most serious case of inflammation of the tissues of the bladder necrosis occurs the walls of the body. They can rupture with subsequent peritonitis. In the urine contains liquid blood in large quantities.
Inflammation may spread from the bladder to the surrounding connective tissue of the abdominal cavity, providing support and nourishment of the body. Parasitic accompanied by high fever, formation of abscess, which requires surgical intervention.
Reflux of urine
The normal process of urine formation is:
- the kidneys filter the blood, urine is formed;
- on the thin tubes of the ureters it enters the bladder, where it is stored;
- the urethra out of the body.
Below the movement of urine occurs at the same time, the right, the direction of the ureters, about the bladder there are special valves that do not allow the liquid to flow away back to the kidneys.
The process of inflammation may include these valves, they cease to perform the function of the obturator. The urine in this case is moving in an unnatural direction, up, back to the kidneys. This condition is called vesicoureteral reflux.
How dangerous is reflux? It is a kind of transitional stage between cystitis and nephritis, the method of spread of infection up the urinary system. PMR is diagnosed mostly in children. Damaged tissue kidney scar, when the amount of scar tissue becomes too great, the kidney just refuses.
PMR is diagnosed with contrast cystography. The contrast agent moves along with urine and is detected by x-rays, this allows you to establish whether there is reflux.
A short distance from the bladder to the kidneys, where the infection is localized in the renal pelvis.
Pyelonephritis terrible that to diagnose it until a critical state is almost impossible. The affected kidney (usually only one, bilateral disease is rare) no signs of disease up to stretching and rupture of the inner capsule from excess accumulated inside of pus and exudate. The disease is accompanied by a sharp rise in temperature (over 40 º C), chills, severe pain, spasm of the muscles of the affected side.
Pre-symptom can be reduction of urine formation, change in the characteristics of urine of the affected kidney starts to work worse.
In case of any suspicion of pyelonephritis is bacterial culture and urine analysis, ultrasound or x-rays to determine the extent of the lesion.
Conservative treatment of pyelonephritis includes:
- bed – treatment must be carried out in hospital;
- drinking regime, diet to remove the load from the diseased kidneys;
- antibacterial therapy;
- the elimination of toxins.
Running disease requires surgery.
Inflammation can spread to other urinary system organs, leading to infertility, General exhaustion, nervous disorders. These are the consequences of cystitis.
It is extremely important to know what is dangerous cystitis, in time to take his medication and to prevent complications.